PEOPLE AND PLACES

PEOPLE AND PLACES

Wednesday, July 10, 2013

Egypt’s revolution and military rule

 

 
  • Generals say presidential elections will go ahead by July next year
  • Next week's parliamentary vote WILL go ahead as planned
  • Concessions come on fourth day of clashes as death toll rises to 36
  • Three doctors allegedly hit with rubber bullets in a makeshift hospital
  • Protest leaders calling for a million-strong rally in the capital to intensify pressure

Tens of thousands of protesters poured into central Cairo yesterday, calling for a ‘second  revolution’ and the immediate removal of Egypt’s military rulers.

The increasingly confident crowd stepped up their demands after apparently dismissing an offer from the military to form a ‘national salvation government’.

It was the first time the leadership had bowed to the pressure – but with their numbers swelling by the day, the demonstrators were not in a mood to compromise.

Congregating: Thousands of Egyptian protesters are gathered yesterday in Tahrir Square

Congregating: Thousands of Egyptian protesters are gathered yesterday in Tahrir Square

Protesters take cover behind a damaged car

A protester walks in front of a line of police

Chaos: As thousands of Egyptians descend into Tahrir Square, violence has continued to break out between protesters and riot police

Running battle: A protester goes to throw a tear gas canister during clashes with police near Tahrir Square

Running battle: A protester goes to throw a tear gas canister during clashes with police near Tahrir Square

The generals agreed to speed up presidential elections, a key demand of the protesters.
Head of the military council, Field Marshal Tantawi, said on national TV they would go ahead by July 2012.

He said parliamentary elections due next week would go ahead and a referendum on an immediate transfer of power would be organised if necessary. The announcement of concessions came on a fourth day of bloody clashes in the capital and other major Egyptian cities over the pace of reform.

Another nine were left dead and hundreds injured, including three doctors said to have been hit by rubber bullets in a makeshift hospital.

In a sign of their growing confidence, protest leaders are calling for a million-strong rally in the capital’s Tahrir Square to intensify pressure on the military.

Protesters run from tear gas fired by riot police

A protester throws stones during clashes

Non-stop: The clashes between protesters and police around Tahrir Square, Cairo, have continued

Injured: A protester is carried today as clashes with riot police continued into a fourth day

Injured: A protester is carried today as clashes with riot police continued into a fourth day

Mourning: Egyptians protester shout today as they attend a funeral of a victim supposedly killed during clashes with Egyptian police in Tahrir Square

Mourning: Egyptians protester shout today as they attend a funeral of a victim supposedly killed during clashes with Egyptian police in Tahrir Square

No way through: An ambulance struggled through the crowds to treat injured protesters

No way through: An ambulance struggled through the crowds to treat injured protesters

Battles broke out in streets connecting the square to police headquarters, with black-clad security forces backed by soldiers firing volleys of tear gas and rubber bullets at groups of angry young men.

INTERNATIONAL CONCERN OVER EGYPT CONTINUES TO GROW

The U.S. has called for restraint on all sides and urged Egypt to proceed with elections despite the violence.   

'The United States continues to believe that these tragic events should not stand in the way of elections,' White House spokesman Jay Carney said.   

EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton echoed that message and said the EU was keen to monitor the polls.    

'The Egyptian authorities have been very clear that they wish to conduct these elections themselves.

'We believe it would give credibility to them to have international observation,' she told British lawmakers in London.        

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said he deplored the loss of life.

He has called on the transitional authorities 'to guarantee the protection of human rights and civil liberties for all Egyptians, including the right to peaceful protest'.

They responded by hurling stones and fire bombs. The new wave of protests and violence around the country that began on Saturday has left at least 36 dead and has thrown Egypt’s politics into chaos.

In his brief TV address, Field Marshal Tantawi announced the electoral concessions and sought to cast the military as the nation’s foremost patriots, angrily denouncing what he called attempts to taint its reputation.

But the masses in Tahrir Square rejected his proposal, greeting it with chants of ‘erhal’, or leave.
Men in the square opened a corridor in the middle of the crowd to give easy access to motorcycles and ambulances ferrying dozens of wounded to field hospitals nearby.

At one point the crowds carried an open wooden coffin containing the body of a protester wrapped in white and conducted a funeral in the middle of the square.

The mood was determined and defiant. ‘The real revolution begins from today,’ said Taymour Abu Ezz, 58. ‘Nobody will leave until the military council leaves power.’

Protester Fahmy Ali said: ‘We demand a full purge of the system and the removal of the military council.’

Ahmad Gad, 20, a student, said many felt that ousted President Hosni Mubarak was still in power and added: ‘In Tunisia they already had elections.’

Angry: Protesters in Tahrir Square kept their distance and fled from tear gas fired by riot police during clashes last night

Angry: Protesters in Tahrir Square kept their distance and fled from tear gas fired by riot police during clashes last night

An Egyptian protester looks on as others hurl stones at security forces, during clashes yesterday

An Egyptian protester runs for cover during clashes yesterday

Action: An Egyptian protester looks on as others hurl stones at security forces (left) as a protester runs for cover during clashes yesterday (right)

Ambulance bike: Protesters carry an injured comrade after the clashes with police yesterday

Ambulance bike: Protesters carry an injured comrade after the clashes with police yesterday

An Egyptian protester is carried away during clashes with security forces yesterday

Dead: A body seen lying in Zeinhom Morgue in downtown Cairo after having allegedly been killed by police forces in Tahrir Square

Fourth day: An Egyptian protester is carried away (left) during clashes with security forces, as a dead body (right) is seen lying in Zeinhom Morgue in Cairo, having allegedly been killed by police forces in Tahrir Square

Holding a sign that read ‘Mubarak, leave’, English teacher Mohammad Abdullah, 50, said: ‘He’s still in power. He just moved his HQ from the palace to the hospital.’

WHY IS HOSTILITY AGAINST THE MILITARY REGIME GROWING?

Army generals were feted for their part in easing Mubarak out.

But hostility to their rule has hardened since, especially over attempts to set new constitutional principles that would keep the military permanently beyond civilian control.

The violence casts a pall over the first round of Egypt's staggered and complex election process, which starts on November 28 in Cairo and elsewhere.

The army says the polls will go ahead.

'The January 25 revolution is continuing and there are attempts to run it off its course and there are those that are pushing it in the direction of chaos.

'That is why these protests have started,' presidential candidate Amr Moussa told Al-Hayat Television.   

Islamist presidential candidate Hazem Salah Abu Ismail, who had joined the protests in Tahrir Square, described the military council's apology for the deaths of protesters as worthless.

He said: 'I call on them to step down.'

Mubarak, 83, on trial since July for ordering the killing of protesters, has spent months in a military hospital in Cairo.

‘The army is making the same mistake as Mubarak. They hear the demands but respond when it’s too late,’ said Abdel-Hamid, a supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood.

In stinging criticism yesterday, Amnesty International accused Egypt’s rulers of brutality sometimes exceeding that of former president Hosni Mubarak, saying the hopes of protestors had been crushed.

The Human Rights group said military rulers had met few of their commitments since assuming power after the overthrow of Mubarak and that military courts had extended emergency laws trying hundreds of civilians.

Torture had continued in army custody, it said, and there were consistent reports of security forces employing armed ‘thugs’ to attack protestors.

The decision to form a ‘national salvation government’ came after crisis talks between political and military leaders that preserved parliamentary elections and sped the process towards presidential elections.

But the major concessions were immediately rejected by tens of thousands of protesters in Tahrir Square threatening a 'second revolution.'

‘We are not leaving, until he leaves,' chanted the protesters, demanding that Tantawi and his council of generals immediately give up power to a civilian transitional authority.

‘The people want to bring down the field marshal,' they shouted in scenes starkly reminiscent of the uprising that ousted Hosni Mubarak nine months ago.

Cracking down: Riot policemen seen during clashes with protesters along a debris-strewn side street near Tahrir Square yesterday

Cracking down: Riot policemen seen during clashes with protesters along a debris-strewn side street near Tahrir Square yesterday

An Egyptian man readies to throw a ball of fire during clashes on the third day with security forces at Tahrir Square

A young Egyptian protester joins the clashes with security forces on the third day at Tahrir Square in Cairo yesterday

Violence: A protester gets ready to throw a firebomb (left) as a young boy looks on (right)

Protest: Egyptians are today converging on Cairo's central Tahrir Square for a 'one million-man march'

Protest: Egyptians are today converging on Cairo's central Tahrir Square for a 'one million-man march'

Fahmy Ali, one protester in Tahrir, said the concessions did not go far enough. ‘We demand a full purge of the system and the removal of the military council,’ he said.

Ahmed Shouman, an army major who gained fame as the first officer to join protests against Mubarak, returned to Tahrir to join the demonstrations. Ecstatic protesters carried him on their shoulders. Shouman was acquitted in a military court after his defection in February, but was suspended from service. 

The military has been backed into a difficult corner. Protesters are demanding it surrender the reins of power - or at least set a firm date in the very near future for doing so soon.

Without that, few civilian political leaders are likely to join a new government for fear of being tainted as facades for the generals, as many consider the current Cabinet.

The political uncertainty and prospect of continued violence dealt a punishing blow to an already battered economy.

Egypt’s benchmark index plunged more than 5 per cent, the third straight day of declines. Banks closed early and many workplaces sent employees home ahead of schedule for fear of a deterioration in security.

Flash attack: The protests have also spread to Alexandria

Flash attack: The protests have also spread to Alexandria

Launching: Egyptian protesters hurl stones at security forces during clashes last night

Launching: Egyptian protesters hurl stones at security forces during clashes last night

TIMELINE: PROTESTS IN EGYPT

Clashes in Egypt

January 25 - Thousands of Egyptians demand an end to President Hosni Mubarak's rule and clash with police in 'Day of Wrath' of anti-government demonstrations inspired by the downfall of Tunisia's President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali on January 14.

January 26 - In unprecedented scenes, police fight with thousands of Egyptians who defy a government ban to protest against Mubarak's rule. Security forces arrest about 500 demonstrators over the two days, the Interior Ministry says.

January 29 - Mubarak sacks his cabinet but refuses to step down. Protesters stream back into Cairo's central Tahrir Square in the early hours after Mubarak's announcement. Later Mubarak picks intelligence chief Omar Suleiman as vice-president.

January 30 - U.S. President Barack Obama urges an 'orderly transition' to democracy in Egypt, stopping short of calling on Mubarak to step down.

January 31 - Egypt's army says it will not use force against Egyptians staging protests. It says freedom of expression is guaranteed to all citizens using peaceful means. Egypt swears in a new government. Suleiman says Mubarak has asked him to start dialogue with all political forces. Thousands in Tahrir Square hours after curfew, call for the president to quit.

February 1 - Mubarak declares he will surrender power when his term ends in September, offering a mixture of concessions and defiance in a televised statement.

February 2 - The army calls for protesters to leave the streets and curfew hours are eased. Crowds gather in Tahrir Square for a ninth day of protest, rejecting Mubarak's timetable to leave.

February 10 - Mubarak formally addressed Egypt amid speculation of a military coup, but rather than resigning (as was widely expected), he simply stated he would delegate some of his powers to Vice President Suleiman, while continuing as Egypt's head of state.

Egypt protest

February 11 - The 'Friday of Departure'. Massive protests in many Egyptian cities. Suleiman announces Mubarak's resignation and says the Supreme Council of Egyptian Armed Forces will assume leadership of the country.

February 25 - Protesters returned to Tahrir Square to continue to keep up the pressure on the interim government.

April 1 - Save the Revolution day. Thousands of demonstrators filled Tahrir Square demanding the ruling military council move faster to dismantle lingering aspects of the old regime.

May 24 - Revealed ousted President Hosni Mubarak and his two sons Gamal and Alaa are to be tried over the deaths of anti-government protesters in the revolution that began on 25 January.

May 27 - Second Friday of Anger - Thousands of protesters filled Tahrir Square in the largest demonstrations since ousting Mubarak's regime.

July 1 - Friday of Retribution - Tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Suez, Alexandria and Tahrir Square  to voice frustration with the ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces for what they called the slow pace of change five months after the revolution.

July 8 - Friday of Determination - Protesters gathered again to demand immediate reforms and swifter prosecution of former officials from the ousted government.

November 19: Clashes first erupt in Tahrir Square as demonstrators reoccupy the location in central Cairo. The army deploys tear gas in an attempt to control the situation.

November 20 - The army attempts to forcibly clear the square, but protesters soon return in more than twice their original numbers. Fierce fighting breaks out and continues through the night, with the army again using tear gas, beating and shooting demonstrators.

November 21 - Demonstrators return to the square, with Coptic Christians standing guard as Muslims protesting the regime pause for prayers. Solidarity protests are held in Alexandria, Suez, and at least five other major Egyptian cities.

  • Military leadership said it will run the country for six months, or until elections can be held
  • Clashes reported between protesters and army as soldiers attempt to clear Tahrir Square
  • Police officers also stage protests across Cairo over low wages
  • Concerns raised over speed of power transition and whether military will relinquish rule
  • British government urged to freeze any assets former president Hosni Mubarak holds in the UK

Egypt's military rulers were dissolving the parliament and suspending the constitution, meeting two key demands of pro-democracy protesters.

In its latest communique, the military leadership that took power when President Hosni Mubarak stepped down on Friday, said it would run the country six months, or until presidential and parliamentary elections could be held.

The military moved to take control of Tahrir Square in Cairo today as it fought to start returning Egypt to normal.

Fresh action: Protesters walk into Tahrir Square and cars begin queuing to enter the area as the Egyptian military begins to dismantle the camp

Fresh action: Protesters walk into Tahrir Square and cars begin queuing to enter the area as the Egyptian military begins to dismantle the camp

Defiant: A protester gestures as soldiers stand around his tent in Tahrir Square. Clashes between activists and the army have been reported

Defiant: A protester gestures as soldiers stand around his tent in Tahrir Square. Clashes between activists and the army have been reported

There were heated rows in the Square, which was the crucible of the revolution against Hosni Mubarak, about whether to keep up protests to comply with army orders.

'The people want the square cleared', one group chanted. 'We will not leave, we will not leave,' replied another.

The Arab world's most populous country is taking its first tentative steps towards democracy after Mr Mubarak quit as President on Friday.

But protest organisers are forming a Council of Trustees to defend the revolution and urge swift reform from a military intent on restoring law and order.

Police officers, emboldened by the 18 days of protests that led to the overthrow of Mubarak's 30-year rule, gathered to demand higher pay and a security guard said warning shots were fired in the air. No one was hurt.

Anger: Policemen protest about wages in the Egyptian capital as the military dissolved parliament and suspended the country's constitution

Anger: Policemen protest about wages in the Egyptian capital as the military dissolved parliament and suspended the country's constitution

Clear up: Army soldiers remove tents from the square after nearly three weeks of protests against former President Hosni Mubarak

Clear up: Army soldiers remove tents from the square after nearly three weeks of protests against former President Hosni Mubarak

Stand off: Protesters sit on the ground in front of soldiers. The military has said it will run Egypt for six months, or until elections can be held

Stand off: Protesters sit on the ground in front of soldiers. The military has said it will run Egypt for six months, or until elections can be held

Earlier, troops, some wielding sticks, pushed protesters aside to reopen Tahrir square to traffic.

A cabinet meeting, due today, could provide some answers to a protest movement hungry for change after a revolution that shocked and enthralled the Middle East, sending a warning to autocratic rulers across the region.

For the first time, the portrait of Mubarak, believed to be holed up in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh, will not gaze over cabinet proceedings as Egyptians quietly removed images of of the 82-year-old former leader.

Protest leaders want the immediate release of political prisoners, the lifting of a state of emergency used by Mubarak to crush opposition and dissent, the closure of military courts, fair elections and a swift hand over of power to civilians.

Despite Mubarak's resignation, some protesters have said they plan to stay in the square to ensure the military council keeps its promises on transition. They plan a big demonstration next Friday to celebrate the revolution and honour those killed.

'The revolution is continuing. Its demands have not been met yet,' Mahmoud Nassar, an activist of the 'Youth of the Jan. 25 revolution', told a news conference.

Peaceful: So far there has been little violence between the army and protesters, but concerns have been raised over the military handing power back to the people

Peaceful: So far there has been little violence between the army and protesters, but concerns have been raised over the military handing power back to the people

Guard: An Egyptian soldier holds his rifle as policemen flood into Tahrir Square to protest over wages

Guard: An Egyptian soldier holds his rifle as policemen flood into Tahrir Square to protest over wages

'The sit-in and protests are in constant activity until the demands are met. All are invited to join,' Nassar said.

The Higher Military Council has given no timetable for a transition but tried to reassure with a statement on Saturday affirming a commitment to democracy and its treaties, aimed particularly at Israel with which Egypt has a peace treaty.

The military's strategy was to calm the nation and the world about its future intentions and, in the short term, to ensure law was being enforced after the disgraced police melted away, having failed to crush the protest with teargas and batons.

How to handle policing has become a pressing issue.Interior Minister Mahmoud Wagdy has highlighted the need for 'the speedy return of the police to duty', saying 13,000 inmates who walked out of prison in the early days of the uprising were still on the run.

Some traffic police were back on Cairo streets beside soldiers and tanks guarding intersections and key buildings.
Before the cabinet meeting, a spokesman said: 'The main task of this government is to restore security and order and also start the economic process, and take care of day-to-day life.'

Pledge: General Mohsen el-Fangari appears on TV to confirm the Supreme Military Council will take over running of the country

Pledge: General Mohsen el-Fangari appears on TV to confirm the Supreme Military Council will take over running of the country

Road ahead: People had begun returning to work after Mr Mubarak stepped down on Friday night amid scenes of jubilation

Road ahead: People had begun returning to work after Mr Mubarak stepped down on Friday night amid scenes of jubilation

No big changes were expected to be announced in the cabinet, appointed when Mubarak was still in office. It is supposed to work with the military council to return Egypt to civilian rule.

'The shape of the government will stay until the process of transformation is done in a few months, then a new government will be appointed based on the democratic principles in place,' the spokesman said, adding some portfolios might change hands.

Besides tension in the square and at the police rally, there were demonstrations by workers belonging to the culture and health ministries as people vented their anger after three decades of laws that prevented dissent.

The military was clear about its instructions for Tahrir. 'We do not want any protesters to sit in the square after today,' Mohamed Ibrahim Moustafa Ali, the head of military police, said in an ultimatum as soldiers removed the tents and blankets from the square.

Protesters said soldiers had detained about 50 people and taken them to an army holding area around the Egyptian Museum, which houses a unique collection of ancient artefacts, next to the square. The army had no immediate comment.

Familiar sight: Cars begin to back up on the roads into Tahrir Square as protesters again took to the streets

Familiar sight: Cars begin to back up on the roads into Tahrir Square as protesters again took to the streets

Traffic build up: Tanks and cars are lined up side by side on the approaches to Cairo's main square

Traffic build up: Tanks and cars are lined up side by side on the approaches to Cairo's main square

People chanted 'peacefully, peacefully' as the soldiers and military police in red berets moved in to disperse them. Scuffles broke out and some soldiers lashed out with sticks.

A hard core of a few hundred remained, with about 2,000 people milling around to watch events unfold. The spectacle of the demonstration has swollen its numbers with a wide range of people including the homeless and the curious.

The most committed protesters vowed to remain. 'I will not leave the square. Over my dead body. I trust the army but I don't trust those controlling the army behind the scenes,' said Mohamed Salah, 27.

Faten Hassan, another protester, said it was time to let the army do its job. 'If they fail to fulfil our demands, we know the way back to the square. Egyptians know the road to any uprising they wish to hold again,' she said.

Some passers-by felt the time for protests was over. 'Haven't they got what they want? Can someone explain to me what is left of their demands?' asked one bystander.

Hosni Mubarak

Lord Malloch-Brown

Former foreign minister Lord Malloch-Brown, right, has called on the UK to freeze any assets ex-Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak may hold in the UK

Eyes of the world: A police officer gesticulates outside the Interior Ministry in Cairo

Eyes of the world: A police officer gesticulates outside the Interior Ministry in Cairo

Jihad Laban, an accountant, said much work remained to make sure the revolution did not squander what it had gained.

'We stood by the army in their revolution,' he said, referring to the 1952 coup that toppled the British-backed monarchy. 'They need to stand with us in ours.

'The goal was never just to get rid of Mubarak. The system is totally corrupt and we won't go until we see some real reforms. I am going to be buried in Tahrir, I am here for my children. Egypt is too precious to walk away now.'

It comes as the Government was today under pressure to freeze any assets of ousted Egyptian leader Hosni Mubarak held in the UK.

Business Secretary Vince Cable said that there was a need for 'concerted international action' to tackle the issue.

He warned that the Government would act against any British bank that was involved in helping Mr Mubarak improperly move funds in order to protect his private wealth.

The former president is reported to have amassed a family fortune worth billions of dollars held in British and Swiss banks and tied up in property in London, New York and Los Angeles.

The Swiss authorities have already announced that they are freezing his assets held in their country, and former foreign office minister Lord Malloch-Brown urged the UK to follow suit.

'I think it would be a very prudent thing to do to freeze suspicious accounts here because it will take a new government quite a while to mount some kind of legal claim on them,' he told BBC1’s The Andrew Marr Show.

'It would be a real pity if when they did the money had gone. I think it would be great for the reputation for the City of London if those accounts were frozen now.'

  • The demonstrations were largest since the 2011 Arab Spring uprising
  • Chanted: 'The people demand the fall of the regime'
  • At least 43 women, including foreign journalist, suffered sexual assaults
  • U.S. and UK have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt
  • Egyptian media: Woman was raped five days ago and is now recovering

By JILL REILLY

PUBLISHED: 03:15 EST, 1 July 2013 | UPDATED: 15:52 EST, 1 July 2013

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A Dutch journalist has been raped by several men in Cairo's Tahrir Square as millions of protestors took to the streets to demand President Mohammed Morsi to step down.

The news of the attack came as the Egyptian army issued a 48-hour deadline for the deadly clashes to be resolved - so far eight people have been killed and hundreds injured.

The woman was allegedly raped 'by men who dub themselves revolutionists,' according to Egypt 25’s reporter Dina Zakaria.

The horrifying rape is reminiscent of the violence at Tahrir Square in 2011 when CBS foreign correspondent Lara Logan was beaten and sexually assaulted by a 200-strong mob.

According to Ynetnews, the state hospital issued a statement saying the women was admitted after being raped by five men several days ago.

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Colourful: A general view shows fireworks above Tahrir Square as Egyptians celebrate the Egyptian military reaction to the protests against President Morsi in Cairo

Colourful: A general view shows fireworks above Tahrir Square as Egyptians celebrate the Egyptian military reaction to the protests against President Morsi in Cairo

Fireworks: The army gave Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi and the opposition a 48-hour ultimatum to reach consensus and meet the people's demands or it would announce measures to end the stalemate

Fireworks: The army gave Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi and the opposition a 48-hour ultimatum to reach consensus and meet the people's demands or it would announce measures to end the stalemate

From above: Protesters take part in a protest demanding that Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi resign at Tahrir Square in Cairo

From above: Protesters take part in a protest demanding that Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi resign at Tahrir Square in Cairo

Huge numbers: Egypt's powerful armed forces gave Islamist President Mohamed Mursi a virtual ultimatum to share power, urging the nation's feuding politicians to agree on an inclusive roadmap for the country's future within 48 hours

Huge numbers: Egypt's powerful armed forces gave Islamist President Mohamed Mursi a virtual ultimatum to share power, urging the nation's feuding politicians to agree on an inclusive roadmap for the country's future within 48 hours

Making a point: Egyptians supporting President Morsi wave their national flag and shout slogans during a protest in Cairo

Making a point: Egyptians supporting President Morsi wave their national flag and shout slogans during a protest in Cairo

The website reported the journalist underwent surgery and has been released.

This morning women's activists said at least 43 females, including a foreign journalist, suffered organised sexual assaults by gangs of men in recent days. Egypt's military has given its president and his opponents a 48 hour 'last chance' to reach an agreement to 'meet the people's demands' before it intervenes in the dispute.

Hundreds of thousands of protesters massed for a second day today calling on President Mohammed Morsi to step down.

Egypt's military described the mass protests yesterday that brought out millions demanding Morsi's removal as 'glorious', and said protesters expressed their opinion 'in peaceful and civilized manner,' and that 'it is necessary that the people get a reply ... to their calls.'

Revolt:

Revolt: Protesters have stormed the headquarters of President Mohammed Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt

Opportunists:

Opportunists: Egyptian men loot the burnt headquarters after it was set ablaze by opposition demonstrators overnight

Ultimatum

Ultimatum: Egypt's opposition gave Islamist Mohamed Morsi a day to quit or face civil disobedience after deadly protests demanded the country's first democratically elected president step down after just a year in office

The military underlined it will 'not be a party in politics or rule.' But it said it has a responsibility to act because Egypt's national security is facing a 'grave danger,' according to a statement read out on state television.

'The Armed Forces repeat its call for the people's demands to be met and give everyone 48 hours as a last chance to shoulder the burden of a historic moment for a nation that will not forgive or tolerate any party that is lax in shouldering its responsibility,' it said.

It did not directly define 'the people's demands,' but said if they are not realized, the military is obliged to 'announce a road-map for the future and the steps for overseeing its implementation, with participation of all patriotic and sincere parties and movements'

It is the second ultimatum to be given to Mr Morsi and the opposition to reach an agreement. Last Sunday, defence minister Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi gave the two sides a week to reach an agreement.

The organizers of yesteday's protests also gave Mr Morsi a Tuesday 5pm deadline to step down or face an escalation of the campaign to force him out, including civil disobedience.

Hours earlier protesters stormed the headquarters of Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt.

Obama: Stop Egypt sex assaults

Gunfire at Muslim Brotherhood HQ in Egypt set ablaze in...

Attack: CBS News correspondent Lara Logan pictured shortly before she was assaulted in Tahrir Square while she was reporting on the Egyptian protests. There is no suggestion any of the men pictured were involved in the attack

Past: The horrifying rape is reminiscent of the violence at Tahrir Square in 2011 when CBS foreign correspondent Lara Logan was beaten and sexually assaulted by a 200-strong mob

The six-storey Cairo building was set alight overnight, and this morning looters ransacked its contents and removed the Brotherhood's sign - it is thought eight people have been killed outside in the last 24 hours.

Egyptian security forces arrested 15 armed bodyguards of the number two in the ruling Muslim Brotherhood, Khairat El-Shater, on Monday after an exchange of fire, security sources said.

And the headquarters of the moderate Egyptian Islamist party Wasat was set on fire today, in an expansion of attacks on Islamist organisations across the country. Unidentified assailants threw petrol bombs at the building.

It followed overnight clashes between armed Morsi supporters barricaded inside the building and young protesters pelting it with firebombs and rocks.

The unrest has led the U.S. State Department and UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt.

Volatile:

Volatile: More than 600 people have been wounded after millions of protesters swarmed into the streets to demand the resignation of Islamist President Mohamed Morsi

The unrest has led the U.S. State Department and UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt.

Advice: The unrest has led the U.S. State Department and UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt

Protests:

Protests: Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi wave national flags and light fireworks during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo

Determined:

Determined: Egyptians flooded the streets determined to oust Islamist President Mohamed Morsi on the anniversary of his turbulent first year in power

An Egyptian opposition movement that has led nationwide protests against President Morsi has given him until tomorrow to resign.

Young revolutionaries united with liberal and leftist opposition parties in a massive show of defiance on the first anniversary of Morsi's inauguration yesterday, chanting 'the people demand the fall of the regime'.

The demonstrations, which brought half a million people to Cairo's central Tahrir Square and a similar crowd in the second city, Alexandria, were easily the largest since the Arab Spring uprising that ousted Hosni Mubarak in 2011.

After dawn today, young men were still preventing traffic entering Tahrir Square but only hundreds of people remained, some resting under makeshift awnings.

Morsi, the most populous Arab state's first freely elected leader, stayed out of sight throughout the protests but acknowledged through a spokesman that he had made mistakes while adding that he was working to fix them and was open to dialogue.

He showed no sign of quitting.

Anger:

Anger: Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi wave Egyptian flag and shout slogans against him and members of the Muslim Brotherhood after attacking the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood

Fire attack

Fire attack: A protester throws Molotov cocktails at the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood

Fireworks explode over Tahrir Square as the sun sets during protests this evening

Fireworks explode over Tahrir Square as the sun sets during protests this evening

As nightfall came to Cairo, opponents of Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi protest were still gathered in their thousands outside the presidential palace

As nightfall came to Cairo, opponents of Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi protest were still gathered in their thousands outside the presidential palace

Demonstrations: Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi chant slogans

Demonstrations: Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi chant slogans

Demands

Demands: Egyptians poured onto the streets on Sunday, swelling crowds that opposition leaders hope will number into the millions by evening and persuade Islamist President Mohamed Morsi to resign

TENSION RISING: TRAVEL ADVICE

The U.S. State Department and UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt.

The FCO advise against all travel to parts of the country - around one million British nationals visit Egypt every year.

The demonstrations are 'likely to continue in the near future,' the U.S. travel warning said.

The U.S has also evacuated various 'non-emergency employees and family members' from the country.

Similar warnings have followed from Canada.

Since February the Netherlands has been advising its citizens to 'consider taking the initiative to leave the country.'

France, Germany and New Zealand continue to urge travelers to Egypt to avoid large crowds and be on alert.

An aide to Morsi said he was 'encouraged' that events had unfolded mostly peacefully: 'This is another day of democratic practice that we all cherish,' he said in a statement.

He accused the opposition of being vague in its demands and outlined three ways forward: first, parliamentary elections, which he called 'the most obvious'; second, national dialogue, which he said opponents had repeatedly rejected; and third, early presidential elections, as demanded by protesters.

But that, he said, 'simply destroys our democracy'.

The massive protests showed that the ruling Muslim Brotherhood has not only alienated liberals and secularists by seeking to entrench Islamic rule but has also angered millions of ordinary Egyptians with economic mismanagement.

Tourism and investment have dried up, inflation is rampant and fuel supplies are running short, with power cuts lengthening in the summer heat.

Dozens of militants attacked the Brotherhood's national headquarters in Cairo with shotguns, petrol bombs and rocks, setting it on fire, and targeted offices of its political party across the country.

  • Number killed in clashes between protestors and the president's supporters
  • Anti-Morsi demonstrations have become the largest since the 2011 Arab Spring uprising as they enter the third day of protests
  • Protesters have been chanting: 'The people demand the fall of the regime'
  • Deadline set by military for resolution fast approaches before it will intervene
  • U.S. and UK have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt
  • Protests caused Egyptian shares to reach three-week high as oil prices soar

By JILL REILLY, SUZANNAH HILLS, JAMES RUSH and AMANDA WILLIAMS

PUBLISHED: 04:04 EST, 2 July 2013 | UPDATED: 05:53 EST, 4 July 2013

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It is feared as many as 23 people have been killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of Egypt's president as the country faces the prospect of civil war.

The death toll comes after a night of violence outside Cairo University, which also left  200 injured.

President Mohammed Morsi, who yesterday rebuffed an army ultimatum to force a resolution to Egypt's political crisis, has made an emotional speech which was aired live to the nation.

Morsi, who a year ago was inaugurated as Egypt's first freely elected president, pledged to protect his 'constitutional legitimacy' with his life.

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Mohammed Morsi, who a year ago was inaugurated as Egypt's first freely elected president, pledged to protect his 'constitutional legitimacy' with his life in an emotional televised speech

Emotional: Mohammed Morsi, who a year ago was inaugurated as Egypt's first freely elected president, pledged to protect his 'constitutional legitimacy' with his life in an emotional televised speech

It comes as officials say sixteen people have been killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of Egypt's president as the country faces the prospect of civil war. Unofficial sources claiming the figure could be as many as 23

Defence: It comes as officials say sixteen people have been killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of Egypt's president as the country faces the prospect of civil war. Unofficial sources claiming the figure could be as many as 23

Plain-clothes policemen walk with protestors opposed to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi at the site of clashes with opposing protestors in the Kit Kat neighborhood of Giza, Egypt

Trying to keep control: Plain-clothes policemen walk with protestors opposed to Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi at the site of clashes with opposing protestors in the Kit Kat neighborhood of Giza, Egypt

Opponents of Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi wave national flags during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt

Flying the flag: Opponents of Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi wave national flags during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, Egypt

Protestors dance with flares as they demonstrate against President Morsi, in Tahrir square, Cairo

Lively: Protestors dance with flares as they demonstrate against President Morsi, in Tahrir square, Cairo

He accused loyalists of his ousted autocratic predecessor Hosni Mubarak of exploiting the wave of protests to topple his regime and thwart democracy.

'There is no substitute for legitimacy,' said Morsi, who at times angrily raised his voice, thrust his fist in the air and pounded the podium.

He warned that electoral and constitutional legitimacy 'is the only guarantee against violence.'

Morsi's defiant statement showed that he and his Muslim Brotherhood are prepared to run the risk of challenging the army.

It also entrenches the lines of confrontation between his Islamist supporters and Egyptians angry over what they see as his efforts to impose control by his Muslim Brotherhood and his failures to deal with the country's multiple problems.

The crisis has become a struggle over whether a popular uprising can overturn the verdict of the ballot box.

Morsi's opponents say he has lost his legitimacy through mistakes and power grabs and that their turnout on the streets over the past three days shows the nation has turned against him.

Nationwide protests against Morsi prompted the army to tell feuding politicians they had 48 hours find a resolution with the opposition or it would impose its own road map for the country.

Neither side showed any signs of backing down today with Morsi arguing he had not been consulted by the military and would pursue his own plans for national reconciliation.

But the Islamist leader looked increasingly isolated with the liberal opposition refusing to talk to him and the armed forces, backed by millions of protesters in the street, giving him until Wednesday to agree to share power.

Dawn: Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi sleep on the ground during a sit-in protest demanding that Morsi resign at Tahrir Square

Dawn: Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi sleep on the ground during a sit-in protest demanding that Mursi resign at Tahrir Square which entered its first day this morning

On deadline: Protesters continue to camp out at Tahrir Square as the 48 hour military ultimatum to find a resolution to the uprising fast approaches

On deadline: Protesters continue to camp out at Tahrir Square as the 48 hour military ultimatum to find a resolution to the uprising fast approaches

Colourful: A general view shows fireworks above Tahrir Square as Egyptians celebrate the Egyptian military reaction to the protests against President Morsi in Cairo

Colourful: A general view shows fireworks above Tahrir Square as Egyptians celebrate the Egyptian military reaction to the protests against President Morsi in Cairo

Fireworks: The army gave Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi and the opposition a 48-hour ultimatum to reach consensus and meet the people's demands or it would announce measures to end the stalemate

Fireworks: The army gave Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi and the opposition a 48-hour ultimatum to reach consensus and meet the people's demands or it would announce measures to end the stalemate

Not backing down: President Mohammed Morsi, shown right in this picture released yesterday, meets with Prime Minister Hesham Kandil, center, and Egyptian Minister of Defense, Lt Gen Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi, left, in Cairo

Not backing down: President Mohammed Morsi, pictured right in this image released yesterday, met with Prime Minister Hesham Kandil, center, and Egyptian Minister of Defense, Lt Gen Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi, left, in Cairo

Newspapers across the political spectrum saw the army's 48-hour deadline as a turning point.

'Last 48 hours of Muslim Brotherhood rule,' the opposition daily El Watan declared. 'Egypt awaits the army,' said the state-owned El Akhbar.

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The confrontation has pushed the most populous Arab nation closer to the abyss amid a deepening economic crisis two years after the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, raising concern in Washington, Europe and neighbouring Israel.

But as anti-Morsi protests entered the third day, Egyptian shares jumped to a three-week high this morning.

The bourse's benchmark index jumped 4.9 per cent in early trade to its highest point since June 9 after a bank holiday on Monday to mark the start of a new fiscal year.

Share prices fell 12 per cent in June amid fears that a mass protest called for June 30 might deteriorate into violence, further aggravating a deteriorating economy.

Protesters block gates to Al-Orouba presidential palace

From above: Protesters take part in a protest demanding that Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi resign at Tahrir Square in Cairo

From above: Protesters take part in a protest demanding that Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi resign at Tahrir Square in Cairo

Huge numbers: Egypt's powerful armed forces gave Islamist President Mohamed Mursi a virtual ultimatum to share power, urging the nation's feuding politicians to agree on an inclusive roadmap for the country's future within 48 hours

Huge numbers: Egypt's powerful armed forces gave Islamist President Mohamed Morsi a virtual ultimatum to share power, urging the nation's feuding politicians to agree on an inclusive roadmap for the country's future within 48 hours

But it has also caused the price of oil around the world to soar past $98 a barrel today because of concerns that the protests in Egypt and the civil war in Syria could affect the production and transport of oil supplies in the Middle East and North Africa.

By early afternoon in Europe, benchmark crude for August delivery was up 37 cents to $98.36 a barrel in electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The contract jumped $1.43 to close at $97.99 on Monday.

Meanwhile, protesters remain encamped in Cairo's central Tahrir Square and protest leaders have called for another mass rally on tonight to try to force the president out.

Morsi's Islamist backers have hunkered down at their own rally site on the other side of town, vowing to resist what they depict as a threat of a coup against a legitimately elected president.

The deadline has put enormous pressure on Morsi to step down and last night sent giant crowds opposing the president in Cairo and other cities into delirious celebrations of singing, dancing and fireworks.

Gunfire at Muslim Brotherhood HQ in Egypt set ablaze in...

Volatile:

Volatile: More than 600 people have been wounded after millions of protesters swarmed into the streets to demand the resignation of Islamist President Mohamed Morsi

The unrest has led the U.S. State Department and UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt.

Advice: The unrest has led the U.S. State Department and UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt

Protests:

Protests: Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi wave national flags and light fireworks during a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo

Cairo crammed with anti-Morsi protesters

But it also raised worries on both sides that the army could take over outright as it did after the 2011 ousting of autocrat Hosni Mubarak.

It has raised the risk of a backlash from Morsi's Islamist backers, including his powerful Muslim Brotherhood and hard-liners, some of whom once belonged to armed militant groups.

Pro-Morsi marches numbering in the several thousands began after nightfall on Monday in a string of cities around the country, sparking clashes in some places.

An alliance of the Brotherhood and Islamists read a statement at a televised conference calling on people to rally to prevent 'any attempt to overturn' Morsi's election a year ago.

A line of around 1,500 men with shields, helmets and sticks - assigned with protecting the rally - stamped their feet in military-like lines, singing, 'stomp our feet, raise a fire. Islam's march is coming'.

President Barack Obama said the U.S. is committed to democracy in Egypt, not any particular leader.

Anger:

Anger: Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi wave Egyptian flag and shout slogans against him and members of the Muslim Brotherhood after attacking the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood

Fire attack

Fire attack: A protester throws Molotov cocktails at the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood

Fireworks explode over Tahrir Square as the sun sets during protests earlier this week

Fireworks explode over Tahrir Square as the sun sets during protests last night

As nightfall came to Cairo, opponents of Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi protest were still gathered in their thousands outside the presidential palace

As nightfall came to Cairo, opponents of Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi protest were still gathered in their thousands outside the presidential palace

Traveling in Tanzania, Obama said that although Morsi was democratically elected, the government must respect its opposition and minority groups.

Egypt's presidency said Morsi received a phone call from Obama, who said the U.S. administration 'supports peaceful democratic transition in Egypt'.

The military's statement came on the second day straight day of anti-Morsi protests nationwide, and even though many of the opposition supporters welcomed it, it triggered echoes of a time when the generals were in power following Mubarak's ouster.

Many of those now in the anti-Morsi campaign then led demonstrations against military rule, angered by its management of the transition and heavy hand in the killing of protesters.

Hours after its announcement, the military issued a second statement on its Facebook page denying it intended a coup.

Demonstrations: Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi chant slogans

Demonstrations: Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi chant slogans

Demands

Demands: Egyptians poured onto the streets on Sunday, swelling crowds that opposition leaders hope will number into the millions by evening and persuade Islamist President Mohamed Morsi to resign

Losing support: Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr has resigned in the wake of nationwide mass protests marking the first anniversary of the inauguration of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi

Losing support: Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr has resigned in the wake of nationwide mass protests marking the first anniversary of the inauguration of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi

'The ideology and culture of the Egyptian armed forces does not allow for the policy of a military coup,' it said.

In its initial statement, the military said it would 'announce a road map for the future and measures to implement it' if Morsi and its opponents cannot reach a consensus within 48 hours - a virtual impossibility. It promised to include all 'patriotic and sincere' factions in the process.

TENSION RISING: TRAVEL ADVICE

The U.S. State Department and UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office have urged citizens to cancel travel plans to or within Egypt.

The FCO advise against all travel to parts of the country - around one million British nationals visit Egypt every year.

The demonstrations are 'likely to continue in the near future,' the U.S. travel warning said.

The U.S has also evacuated various 'non-emergency employees and family members' from the country.

Similar warnings have followed from Canada.

Since February the Netherlands has been advising its citizens to 'consider taking the initiative to leave the country.'

France, Germany and New Zealand continue to urge travelers to Egypt to avoid large crowds and be on alert.

The military underlined it will 'not be a party in politics or rule'. But it said it has a responsibility to find a solution because Egypt's national security is facing a 'grave danger', according to the statement.

It did not detail the road map, but it heavily praised the massive protests that began Sunday demanding that Morsi step down and that early elections be called - suggesting that call had to be satisfied.

It said the protests were 'glorious,' adding that the participants expressed their opinion 'in peaceful and civilized manner'. It urged 'the people's demands to be met'.

Morsi met with military chief Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi and Prime Minister Hesham Kandil, according to the president's Facebook page, without giving details. Associated Press calls to presidential spokesmen were not answered.

In a sign of Morsi's growing isolation, five Cabinet ministers said they have resigned, the state MENA news agency reported. The five were the ministers of communications, legal affairs, environment, tourism and water utilities.

The foreign minister also submitted his resignation, government officials said, speaking on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to talk to the press. The governor of the strategic province of Ismailia on the Suez Canal, Hassan el-Rifaai, also quit.

Protesters chants slogans against President Mohammed Morsi during a rally in Tahrir Square yesterday

Protesters chants slogans against President Mohammed Morsi during a rally in Tahrir Square yesterday

An Egyptian protester waves a national flag in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against Morsi

An Egyptian protester waves a national flag in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against Morsi

Revolt:

Revolt: Protesters have stormed the headquarters of President Mohammed Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood

Opportunists:

Opportunists: Egyptian men loot the burnt headquarters after it was set ablaze by opposition demonstrators overnight

Ultimatum

Ultimatum: Egypt's opposition gave Islamist Mohamed Morsi a day to quit or face civil disobedience after deadly protests demanded the country's first democratically elected president step down after just a year in office

Sunday's protests on the first anniversary of Morsi's inauguration were the largest seen in the country in the two years of turmoil since Egyptians first rose up against Mubarak in January 2011.

Millions packed Tahrir Square, the streets outside the Ittihadiya presidential palace and main squares in cities around the country.

Violence broke out in several parts of the country, often when marchers came under gunfire, apparently from Islamists.

In Cairo, anti-Morsi youth attacked the main headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood with stones and fire bombs, while Brotherhood supporters barricaded inside opened fired on them.

The clash ended early Monday when the protesters broke into the luxury villa and ransacked it, setting fires.

Mass crowd:

Mass crowd: Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi gather during a demonstration at Tahrir Square in Cairo

Nickname:

Nickname: An Egyptian protester holds a tire framing a poster of Islamist President Mohammed Morsi, a reference to his nickname by protesters as a 'spare tire' because he was the spare presidential candidate for Muslim brotherhood

Bitter:

Bitter: Anti-Morsi protesters chant slogans on a pedestrian bridge with a banner that reads "Get Out", during a massive protest in Alexandria

Nationwide, at least 16 people were killed Sunday and more than 780 injured, Health Ministry spokesman Yehya Moussa told state television.

Earlier, the group organizing the anti-Morsi protests, Tamarod, Arabic for 'Rebel', issued an ultimatum of its own, giving Morsi until Tuesday afternoon to step down or it would escalate the rallies.

Under a framework drawn up by Tamarod, after Morsi steps down, the head of the Supreme Constitutional Court would become an interim president and a technocrat government would be formed.

An expert panel would write a new constitution to replace the one largely drafted by Islamists, and a new presidential election would be held in six months.

One protestor holds a toy sheep as a sign. Mass demonstrations across Egypt on Sunday may determine its future, two and half years after people power toppled a

One protestor holds a toy sheep as a sign. Now mass demonstrations across Egypt could determine its future

One woman has painted a flag on her cheek and shouts during the historical protest today in Cairo

One woman has painted a flag on her cheek and shouts during the historical protest in Cairo

Tensions between Morsi's supporters and his opponents have risen in the lead-up to the anniversary, with at least seven killed in clashes last week

Tensions between Morsi's supporters and his opponents have risen in the lead-up to the anniversary, with at least seven killed in clashes last week

For Islamists, however, the idea of Morsi stepping down is an inconceivable infringement on the repeated elections they won since Mubarak's fall, giving them not only a longtime Brotherhood leader as president but majorities in parliament.

Morsi and Brotherhood officials say they are defending democratic legitimacy and some have depicted the protests as led by Mubarak loyalists trying to return to power. But many of his Islamist allies have also depicted it as a fight against Islam.

'The military has sacrificed legitimacy. There will be a civil war,' said Manal Shouib, a 47-year-old physiotherapist at the pro-Morsi rally outside the Rabia al-Adawiya Mosque not far from Ittihadiya.

Outside the palace, protesters contended that Morsi could not survive with only the Islamist bloc on his side.

'It is now the whole people versus one group. What can he do?' said Mina Adel, a Christian accountant. 'The army is the savior and the guarantor for the revolution to succeed.'

TWO YEARS OF TURMOIL AND TRANSITION: TIMELINE OF EVENTS

Key events from when the Arab Spring began to the current protests:

Jan. 25-Feb. 11, 2011 - Egyptians stage nationwide demonstrations against the rule of autocrat Hosni Mubarak, who led the country for nearly three decades.

The 18-day 'revolution,' launched by secular and leftist youth, draws in a wide spectrum, including the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamists. Hundreds of protesters are killed as Mubarak and his allies try to crush the uprising.

Feb. 11 - Mubarak steps down and turns power over to the military. Two days later, the body of top generals, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, dissolves parliament and suspends the constitution, meeting two key demands of protesters.

June 16-17 - Egyptians vote in the presidential runoff between Morsi and Shafiq. The generals issue a 'constitutional declaration' giving themselves sweeping authorities and limiting the powers of the next president. Morsi emerges as the victor, with 51.7 percent of the vote.

June 30 - Morsi takes his formal oath of office before the Supreme Constitutional Court, a day after reading a symbolic oath in Cairo's Tahrir Square, birthplace of the revolution.

Aug. 12 - In a bold move, Morsi orders the retirement of the top Mubarak-era leadership of the military and cancels the military's last constitutional decree, taking back the powers that the generals gave themselves. The move was seen as way to curb the military's role in political affairs but it also gave Morsi the power to legislate in the absence of parliament.

Nov. 22 - Morsi unilaterally decrees greater authorities for himself, giving his decisions immunity from judicial review and barring the courts from dissolving the constituent assembly and the upper house of parliament. The move came just ahead of court decisions that could have dissolved the bodies. The move sparks days of protests, with clashes between Morsi's supporters and opponents. At one point, some 200,000 people rally in Tahrir Square, with some of the first chants for Morsi to 'leave.'

Dec. 4 - More than 100,000 protesters march on the presidential palace, demanding the cancellation of the referendum and the writing of a new constitution. The next day, Islamists attack a peaceful anti-Morsi sit-in outside the palace, sparking all-out street battles that leave at least 10 dead. Days later, Morsi rescinds his initial decrees, but maintains the date of the referendum.

Jan. 25, 2013 - Hundreds of thousands hold protests in Tahrir Square and nationwide against Morsi on the 2-year anniversary of the start of the revolt against Mubarak, and clashes erupt in many places.

Jan. 26 - Residents of the city of Port Said stage protests, angered by a court ruling convicting and sentencing to death a group of local soccer fans for a 2012 stadium riot. Police crack down hard in Port Said, killing more than 40 protesters, and in outrage the city and others nearby go into near revolt. Much of the anger is focused at Morsi, who praised the police for their crackdown.

Feb.-March - Protests continue in Port Said and other cities for weeks, with dozens more dying in clashes, and some police units around the country go on strike. Brotherhood youth and their opponents fight in the streets outside the group's main Cairo headquarters.

June 23 - A mob beats to death four Egyptian Shiites in their home in a village on the edge of Cairo. Morsi condemns the attack, but critics blame virulent anti-Shiite rhetoric by his hard-line Islamist allies, fueled by Syria's civil war. A week earlier, Morsi shared a stage with hard-line clerics at a rally, sitting silently as they denounced Shiites as 'filthy.'

June 30 -- Millions of Egyptians take to the streets in Cairo and other cities calling for Morsi to step down in a massive display of anger and frustration with the Islamist leader. The demonstrations are largely peaceful, although 16 people, half of them in clashes outside the Muslim Brotherhood's Cairo headquarters, are killed in protest-related violence nationwide. Organisers vow to keep up the protests until Morsi resigns.

 

Egyptians did what Germans should’ve done long ago

“I really don’t care much if the whole world called it a military coup, though it’s not, as long as Egypt rids itself of the nightmare of the Islamists and the MB rule.”

… by Dr. Ashraf Ezzat


What happened on June 30 in Egypt, whom the Egyptians proudly insist on calling the second wave of their revolution, was not a thing that erupted on the spur of the moment; rather it was due to a snowballing buildup of collective dissatisfaction and fear over the last year.

Dissatisfied by the incompetent Muslim Brotherhood ‘MB’ governance and alarmed by their blatant agenda to turn Egypt into another Somalia or Afghanistan, Egyptians revolted again.

But this time they rallied in millions across the country not against a failing president or government, but against a fascist group that peddles religion, feeds on ignorance and prejudice and craves authoritarian power and in doing that the MB respects no civil norms and leaves nothing behind except chaos, violence and ruins of a nation.

I really don’t care much if the whole world called it a military coup, though it’s not, as long as Egypt rids itself of the nightmare of the Islamists and the MB rule.

Revolt like an Egyptian

On June 30, 2013, Egyptians and for the second time in almost two years took to the streets in unprecedented numbers and fashion, mesmerized the world, surprised –or better yet fooled- the observing political circles around the world, and kicked out another incumbent president who failed to deliver on his electoral promises. (watch my video of live rallies in Alexandria on June 30th)

But in fact there is a lot more to this revolution than just broken promises. A lot more actually…

This is a historical precedent, and if we want to grasp the rationale behind this revolution, we ought to examine it in a historical context.

I know a lot of conspiracy theory addicts would rather see it in a Mossad/CIA –orchestrated thriller context, as if the Egyptians were hordes of cows who could not think for themselves which way to go.

Ann Patterson, US ambassador to Egypt

As a matter of fact the CIA was regularly receiving affirming reports from the American Embassy in Cairo that Egypt’s state of affairs is well under the control of MB and that they are a sure bet.

Ann Patterson, the US ambassador to Egypt, or the wicked witch as Egyptians like to call her, used to spend more time with the MB supreme guide than with her staff.

And even after the fall of the MB, Patterson refused to give up on her bet, and convinced the leaders of the MB to try and mobilize their loyalists and stir up violence to convince the west that Egypt is on the brink of a civil war.

Actually, Patterson’s scenario could do well in a tribal country like Syria, or Pakistan, where Patterson served before, but definitely not in Egypt.

I really love it when the west starts peeking at the Egyptian scene, through headlines and clueless TV reports, specially the brotherhoodized Al Jazeera.

When things get a little bit out of hand and may be beyond expectations and plans, we begin to hear the reactionary clich├ęs “This is a coup, this is undemocratic. After all, Morsi is an elected president”

Egypt’s military in history

Well, I have news for everybody, Morsi, the clumsiest and weakest in the long history of Egyptian presidency and monarchy, was not the president; he was just a ‘Stebn’- Arabic for a spare flat tire – that’s what the public called him.

The real power and orders came from the office of the Morshid – the supreme guide of the MB group- something similar to the Nazi Fuhrer.

Again and from a historical perspective, perhaps Egypt does import many of the western ready-made products and goods, but when it comes to domestic policy and authority, the land of the pyramids has a very old model of governance the whole world should learn from.

Egypt, the land that witnessed the first powerful central government in the history of mankind (3100 BC), has always relied on a strong and loyal army to protect the Egyptian nation from dangers and threats, be that external or internal.

Abdul Fattah El Sisi, Egypt’s military chief

At the critical moments, and whenever the country took an ugly turn, the Egyptian army and generals have always stepped in and saved the day for the Egyptian nation.

It is a repeated scenario that could be traced from Colonel Nasser 1952, way back to the time of commander Horemheb 1319 BC, who saved a crumbling empire after the turmoil era of the heretic king, Akhenaten.

And now we witness the addition of a new name in this long list of honor and glory; General Abdul Fatah El Sisi, commander in chief of Egypt army.

Egypt’s first elected president

The rule of the MB was not just another term in office in a democratic system; it was the beginning of the end of the civil society Egypt has come to know and embrace since 1805 which witnessed the last days of the rule of the Ottoman Empire.

May be the MB resorted to one of the Western Democratic tools, elections that is, to get into the political Egyptian Arena, but that was just a one-time cheap trick not to be needed again; for they came to stay and to stay for good.

Nobody could deny that Mubarak’s rule was tainted with corruption and dictatorship, but that was common practice for Egyptians throughout most of their long history, it was ugly but nothing Egyptians haven’t seen worse before during the colonial or Ottoman era, or even the Roman one for that matter.

But the Muslim Brotherhood and their pathetic puppet, Mohamed Morsi, the so called democratically elected president, were trying to demolish the civil pillars of the country, brotherhoodize the Judiciary, legislative, and administrative institutions, immerse the constitution with controversial and radical Sharia law, wipe out press freedom, terrorize the Christian and Shiite minorities and turn the women into veiled ghosts who could only uncover their upper veils to be fed, and their lower ones to get impregnated.

In short, the MB, an international syndicate of obscenely financed and radically brain-washed islamists, were trying to hijack Egypt and turn it into the model they all treasure as the ideal Islamic Emirate, The Taliban example in Afghanistan.

MB and al Qaeda/Hamas connection

Few months after Morsi took office, he swiftly and regularly released all the Islamist prisoners, who got convicted over terrorist operations, including the murder of the late president Sadat.

And moreover, Al-Qaeda leader, Ayman El-Zawahri, was encouraged to send many of his terrorist cells over to Egypt and to begin operating in North Africa, and the Middle East from their new headquarters, Sinai, which was a few inches close to being declared an Islamic emirate.

Morsi, himself, the so called democratically elected president, turned out to be an ex-convict who was detained in prison on charges of collaboration with foreign intelligence.

Morsi broke out of jail by force on January 28, 2011 amid the security vacuum that ensued after MB gangs attacked and burned down the police stations around the country, at the first days of the 2011 revolution.

And now Morsi is detained, pending investigations over crimes of  collaboration with foreign intelligence, jeopardizing Egypt’s national security and illegally breaking out of jail. And in any respected democracy, runaway convicts don’t run for presidency.

And guess who bulldozed down the walls of the Egyptian prisons and got him out with hundreds of convicted inmates?  … They were the Militias of Hamas (offshoot of the MB) and by the way, Hamas was also democratically elected, or in other words, eternally elected.

And one of the most dramatic consequences of the fall of the MB rule, besides Patterson’s magic going wrong, is that Egyptians grew ever more suspicious of Hamas and its secret connection with MB and began to see it as a potential threat to the Egyptian national security.

I know, at this point, many will jump in, and probably start sniffing around and will conclude by saying ‘ Aha, we smell Mossad’ … But the truth is that the Hamas-MB connection was stinky enough, the Israelis only had to stand back and enjoy the scene getting uglier.

And that’s why Morsi & the MB amazingly turned out to be strategic assets for the Israelis, who envisioned in their secret promises of giving away Sinai to Hamas, a final solution to their eternal conflict the Palestinians.

Redefining Democracy

Morsi, escaped convict facing crimes of high treason

Is there a democratic system around the globe that finds out that its incumbent president is a runaway convict and a traitor who is also accused of electoral fraud and let him carry on in office till the end of his term?

Is there a democracy in this world whose presidency endorses and allows mobs of Islamists and MB loyalists to besiege the supreme constitutional court and humiliate its honorable judges to intimidate them into passing their laws and deformed constitution?

May be Morsi was democratically elected-his campaign is accused of electoral fraud; fake ballot papers, and tampering with the national register of electors- but he surely did not govern democratically afterwards.

This is part and parcel of the Islamists’ scheme, justified by their beliefs and theorists; play the infidels’ game until you have a good grip on power, then it’s a whole new game with a whole new rules; the Islamists’ emirate and their twisted interpretation of Islam and Sharia.

The road to Iran

Of course, the USA and Israel were quite pleased by the way things were turning, or better yet deteriorating, in Egypt under the rule of a religious fascism like that of the MB, a group with affiliates all around Israel; in Jordan, Syria, Hamas and down to Sudan. A group like that could be conveniently employed as a Sunni belt to encircle and help take down the Shiite nation of Iran.

The MB was going to be exploited to take down Iran, the current enemy of Israel and the USA, but only to be hunted down and dealt with as a terrorist organization soon afterwards exactly like what happened to Osama Bin Laden, a used to be CIA-agent.

And believe me the Mujahideen, and MB recruits and members have the same dogmatic mentality that, never learn from history, and will always qualify them as flies ready to be trapped in any foreign intelligence web.

One look at the Syrian circus of Mujahideens’ warfare will suffice as a living proof of how easy it is to turn any part of the Middle East into a sectarian inferno with the help of groups that peddles religion like Hamas and MB and of course the Jewish state of Israel- the founder of modern day religious fanaticism and the world sponsor for insanely mixing religion and politics

The second wave of the Egyptian revolution, protected and endorsed by the Egyptian army is not a blow to democracy, rather the contrary; it is reestablishing democracy that should be based on separating the synagogue, the mosque and the church from state.

It might be a blow to the US/Israel plan to turn the Middle East into a dreadful Sunni vs. Shiite war zone, in preparation to take down Iran. And it is also a severe blow to the US credibility in the Middle East which witnessed throughout the last couple of years the fall and the forsaking of all US allies in the region.

The Regime of the MB, stripped of his so called political Islam cloak, is a fascist one exactly like that of German Nazism.

And ironically enough, and also from a historical point of view, Hitler was a democratically elected president who, like Morsi and his radical group, was trying to Hijack a great nation and take it on a downhill cruise to the dark ages.

Only we, Egyptians, did what the Germans should have done long time ago. We kicked the Morshid/ Fuhrer out of office.

  • Hundreds of thousands turned out across Egypt for pro-army demonstrations but clashed with counter protests
  • At least 70 people have died in clashes as supporters of ousted President Mohammed Morsi also lined the streets
  • Morsi has been formally accused of conspiring with Palestinian group Hamas and of murdering prison officers

More than 100 people are believed to have been killed at a protest in support of Egypt's ousted President Mohammed Morsi. Security forces are reported to have started shooting demonstrators shortly before pre-dawn morning prayers at a round-the-clock vigil in Cairo being staged by backers of Morsi, who was removed from power by the army three weeks ago. Makeshift field hospitals around the area near the Rabaa al-Adawiya mosque were overwhelmed, with one doctor telling the BBC that more than 1,000 had been injured. The state health ministry said 20 people had died and 177 suffered injuries.

Followers: This image released by the Egyptian army of Friday evening's pro-army rally shows the strength of support for the security forces and against the ousted president Morsi

Followers: This image released by the Egyptian army of Friday evening's pro-army rally shows the strength of support for the security forces and against the ousted president Morsi

Demonstration: Hundreds of thousands took to the streets as supporters of the army heeded a call to rally

Demonstration: Hundreds of thousands took to the streets as supporters of the army heeded a call to rally

Support: Demonstrations like this pro-army gathering in Tahrir Square on Friday night were met with counter-protests by Morsi followers

Support: Demonstrations like this pro-army gathering in Tahrir Square on Friday night were met with counter-protests by Morsi followers

Support: A Egyptian man waves national flags as an army helicopter flies over supporters of the army in Tahrir Square

Support: A Egyptian man waves national flags as an army helicopter flies over supporters of the army in Tahrir Square

Show of strength: Supporters of the army gathered in Tahrir Square in Cairo on Friday

Show of strength: Supporters of the army gathered in Tahrir Square in Cairo on Friday

Lights: Hundreds of laser lights were shone into the sky by demonstrators in Tahrir Square who rallied to show support for the army

Lights: Hundreds of laser lights were shone into the sky by demonstrators in Tahrir Square who rallied to show support for the army

Al Jazeera Egypt reported that 120 had been killed and some 4,500 injured in the early morning violence near the capital's Rabaa al-Adawia mosque. 'They are not shooting to wound, they are shooting to kill,' said pro-Morsi Muslim Brotherhood spokesman Gehad El-Haddad. Reporters at the scene said firing could still be heard hours after the troubles started. The deaths occurred hours after supporters and opponents of Morsi staged mass rival rallies across the country.

Hundreds of thousands of people came onto the streets after army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who played a central role in overthrowing the president, called for Egyptians to rally to give him a mandate to tackle 'violence and terrorism'. Muslim Brotherhood claim 70 supporters killed in Cairo

Clash: Security forces fired rounds of teargas at pro-Morsi supporters at a vigil in Cairo

Clash: Security forces fired rounds of teargas at pro-Morsi supporters at a vigil in Cairo

Barricade: Supporters of the deposed president throw stones from behind a makeshift wall as they take cover from the police during clashes in Cairo

Barricade: Supporters of the deposed president throw stones from behind a makeshift wall as they take cover from the police during clashes in Cairo

Explosion: Fireworks are set off near police and pro-army protesters by supporters of Morsi

Explosion: Fireworks are set off near police and pro-army protesters by supporters of Morsi

Warzone: The streets of Cairo descended into chaos as supporters of the army clashed with pro-Morsi demonstrators

Warzone: The streets of Cairo descended into chaos as supporters of the army clashed with pro-Morsi demonstrators

Confusion: Security forces said they had fired teargas at pro-Morsi supporters but denied shooting at them

Confusion: Security forces said they had fired teargas at pro-Morsi supporters but denied shooting at them

Supporters of deposed Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi lay flowers near a trail of dried blood

A woman cries outside a field hospital in the Nasr area of Cairo where more than 100 people have been killed

Aftermath: Supporters of President Morsi lay flowers near a puddle of blood, while a woman cries outside a field hospital in the Nasr area of the city

Destruction: Stones and flowers are laid next to a trail of blood that has splattered across a tiled floor during the clashes in the early hours of this morning

Destruction: Stones and flowers are laid next to a trail of blood that has splattered across a tiled floor during the clashes in the early hours of this morning

But Muslim Brotherhood supporters also staged mass counter-rallies, demanding the reinstatement of Morsi, who was placed under investigation on Friday for a raft of crimes, including murder.

More than 200 people have died in violence since the overthrow of Morsi, including at least nine on Friday, most of them Brotherhood supporters.

Mr Haddad said the latest deaths came after police started firing repeated rounds of teargas around 3am at protesters who had spilled out of the main area of the Rabaa sit-in.

'Through the smog of the gas, the bullets started flying,' he said.

Security: A military helicopter patrols the skies above Tahrir Square where hundreds of thousands of supporters of the army gathered on Friday

Security: A military helicopter patrols the skies above Tahrir Square where hundreds of thousands of supporters of the army gathered on Friday

Flares: Fireworks were let off above the crowds at the presidential palace in Cairo

Flares: Fireworks were let off above the crowds at the presidential palace in Cairo

Split: Both the army and the ousted president have thousands of supporters in Egypt

Split: Both the army and the ousted president have thousands of supporters in Egypt

Conflict: Police stand back as teargas is fired into a crowd in Cairo in the early hours of Saturday morning

Conflict: Police stand back as teargas is fired into a crowd in Cairo in the early hours of Saturday morning

He claimed 'special police forces in black uniforms' were firing live rounds and that snipers shot from the roofs of a university, buildings in the area, and a bridge.

State news agency MENA quoted an unnamed security source as saying that only teargas was used to disperse protesters. He said no firearms were used.

Mr Haddad said the pro-Morsi supporters had used rocks to try to defend themselves.

On the podium outside the Rabaa mosque, a speaker urged people to retreat from the gunfire, but Mr Haddad said 'men stayed to defend themselves because women and children are inside the sit-in'.

Pro-army demonstration held at Egyptian presidential palace

Accusations: The clashes came as Morsi was accused of crimes including murder

Accusations: The clashes came as Morsi was accused of crimes including murder

Distress: An injured supporter of Morsi kneels on the ground after clashes with riot police in the capital

Distress: An injured supporter of Morsi kneels on the ground after clashes with riot police in the capital

Injuries: A supporter of the ousted president is rushed to a field hospital in the Nasr area of Cairo

Injuries: A supporter of the ousted president is rushed to a field hospital in the Nasr area of Cairo

Attack: A spokesman for the Muslim Brotherhood claimed hundreds of people were injured when security forces shot at them in the early hours of this morning

Attack: A spokesman for the Muslim Brotherhood claimed hundreds of people were injured when security forces shot at them in the early hours of this morning

Treatment: At least 70 people are thought to have died, while scores of the injured were rushed to a field hospital

Treatment: At least 70 people are thought to have died, while scores of the injured were rushed to a field hospital

Makeshift: An injured man is rushed through the crowds to a field hospital on the back of a moped

Makeshift: An injured man is rushed through the crowds to a field hospital on the back of a moped

Help: A pro-Morsi supporter is treated in a field hospital following clashes between security forces and demonstrators

Help: A pro-Morsi supporter is treated in a field hospital following clashes between security forces and demonstrators

Senior Brotherhood politician Saad el-Hosseini said: 'I have been trying to make the youth withdraw for five hours. I can't. They are saying have paid with their blood and they do not want to retreat.'

Egypt's army-installed interior minister, Mohamed Ibrahim, said on Friday that the month-old Cairo vigils by Morsi supporters would be 'brought to an end, soon and in a legal manner', state-run al Ahram news website reported.

Yesterday the country's new rulers accused Morsi of conspiring with the Palestinian Islamist group Hamas and plotting to attack police stations, army officers and prisons during the 2011 uprising against former president Hosni Mubarak.

During the 2011 struggles, he had escaped from a prison and has now been accused of the 'premeditated killing of officers, soldiers and prisoners'.

GRAPHIC CONTENT: Bodies crowd makeshift morgue in Cairo

Ousted: Former president Mohammed Morsi has been formally accused of a raft of crimes and is expected to be charged

Ousted: Former president Mohammed Morsi has been formally accused of a raft of crimes and is expected to be charged

Backing: Supporters of Egypt's ousted president Mohamed Morsi take part in a demonstration in the city of Alexandria, where at least five people died

Backing: Supporters of Egypt's ousted president Mohamed Morsi take part in a demonstration in the city of Alexandria, where at least five people died

The announcement by prosecutors of the investigation against Morsi is likely to pave the way to a formal indictment and eventually a trial.

It was the first news of his legal status since he was deposed by the military on July 3. Since then, the Islamist leader has been held incommunicado in a secret location.

Besides Morsi, five other senior figures from the group have been detained. Hassan Mohammed, a 30-year old teacher who came from southern Egypt to join the pro-Morsi rally, remained steadfast.

'Even if we are going to die, me and my family, we won't leave this place before our president comes back. Even if it takes seven years. We are ready to be martyrs in the name of religion and the nation,' he said.

 

 

Egypt’s 1952 revolution and military rule, a history in photos

On July 23, 1952 a group of Egyptian army officers, calling themselves the “Free Officers Movement” engineered a coup d’etat and forced King Farouk to abdicate the throne and leave the country. After years of building tension between Egypt and Britain over control of the Suez Canal and the Sudan, the military power grab abolished the monarchy and began to build a new sense of Egyptian nationalism. Revolution Day is commemorated every year on July 23.

The Egyptian Republic was declared on June 18, 1953, but military leaders have kept a firm grasp on power ever since.

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

1

A waving, shouting crowd demonstrates against Great Britain in Cairo on Oct. 23, 1951 as tension continued to mount in the dispute between Egypt and Britain over control of the Suez Canal and the Sudan. Police used tear gas to disperse Cairo mobs and fired into other crowds in Alexandria. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

2

A huge banner demanding release of political prisoners is carried by Egyptians in a procession through Cairo streets on Nov. 14, 1951 as a three-day 'Hate Britain' campaign is started. It is part of the Egyptian attempt to get the British out of Egypt and the Egyptians into the Sudan. Most of the political prisoners are members of the Moslem Brotherhood. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

3

British troops search for guerrillas in the sniper-ridden southwest section of Ismalia, Egypt, Jan. 19, 1952, after an outbreak of violence in the area, during which two soldiers and a nun were killed, and nine other soldiers were injured. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

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A British Centurion tank mounts guard as British troops search for guerrillas in the sniper-ridden southwest section of Ismalia, Egypt, Jan. 20, 1952, after an outbreak of violence in the area, during which two soldiers and a nun were killed, and nine other soldiers were injured. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

5

With their hands on their heads, some of the Egyptian police are escorted by British troops, from the police stations at El-Hamada and Tel-El-Kebir, to the local railway station in El-Hamada, Jan. 16, 1952. The British army were trying to capture guerrillas who had been sniping at British troops. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

6

British bren-gun carriers occupy a commanding position during the search for guerrillas in the sniper-ridden southwest section of Ismalia, Egypt, Jan. 19, 1952, after an outbreak of violence in the area, during which two soldiers and a nun were killed, and nine other soldiers were injured. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

7

Egyptian police in action against British troops during the two-day skirmish in the outskirts of Suez, Jan. 3, 1952. Egyptians charged the British with aggression and claimed to have killed 15. The British say they were engaged in a mopping-up operation following sniping attacks in the area of the water-plant and claim to have killed 23 Egyptians. British casualties were six wounded, say British authorities there. Egyptian casualties, as given by the Egyptian authorities, were 38 wounded. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

8

A soldier from the British 16th Parachute Brigade, left, keeps guard over Egyptians herded behind barbed wire in Ismalia, in the Suez Canal zone of Egypt, Jan. 22, 1952. Whilst these men were being screened, houses were being searched for arms and ammunition. Most of the men were later released. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

9

With hands on their heads, Egyptian policemen are marched towards a prison camp area in Ismalia, Egypt, Jan. 25, 1952, after their capture in fierce fighting between British troops and Egyptian police. They are guarded by a soldier from the Lancashire Fusiliers. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

10

Egyptian police officers are held prisoner by British troops after a battle in Ismalia, Egypt, Jan. 25, 1952. Egyptian police opened fire on British troops after refusing to surrender their arms, and the British troops with tank support returned their fire. Forty two policemen were killed and fifty eight wounded in the battle and over 800 were disarmed when the battle ended. Four Britains were killed and nine wounded. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

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This is a general view of a demonstration taking place at Opera Square in Cairo, Egypt, Jan. 25, 1952. (AP Photo/Stanislav Yavorsky) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

12

British troops, protected by armored car at left, rush into action in Ismailia, Egypt on Jan. 25, 1952 during fierce battling with Egyptians. Action is taking place outside the Egyptian police headquarters where the British fought the police and their guerrilla followers. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

13

A slogan "Down with England" is written in chalk on a street in Cairo, on Jan. 25, 1952. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

14

A crowd marches towards Shepherd Hotel in Cairo, Egypt on Jan. 25, 1952. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

15

View of the Rivoli Cinema, in Cairo, Egypt, Jan. 26, 1952, as it was burns during the rioting. A large crowd watches as firemen attempt to extinguish the blaze. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

16

Aerial view of the remains of the burnt out 'Cicurel', Cairo's biggest department store, in Cairo, Egypt, Jan. 26, 1952, after it was burnt out the previous day by rioters. The building is on Cairo's Fouad First Avenue. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

17

Egyptian women struggle with Cairo police on Jan. 26, 1952 as they are ousted from bank two days ago during anti-British disorders. Women were preventing customers from entering bank. Rioting Egyptian crowds ran wild through Cairo screaming anti-British, pro-Russian slogans. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

18

View of the remains of the burnt out 'Cicurel', Cairo's biggest department store, in Cairo, Egypt, Jan. 26, 1952, after it was burnt out the previous day by rioters. The building is on Cairo's Fouad First Avenue. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

19

In the centre is part of the famous Shepheards Hotel, in Cairo, Egypt, Jan. 27, 1952, after it was burned the previous day by rioters. In the foreground are the wrecked offices of Trans World Airlines. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

20

British Military Police affix "Out of bounds" posters to the walls in the Arab section of Ismalia, Egypt, March 20, 1952. The British Army is pulling out of the area after clearing it of terrorists and having many battles between Egyptian police and British troops. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

21

Abdel Hamid Metwally el Mattat is carried from Cairo court by Egyptian policemen, March 24, 1952 after he had been sentenced to 15 years at hard labor for complicity in last January’s riots in the city. The prisoner is alleged to have roamed Cairo in a jeep, distributing rags soaked with petrol to demonstrators. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

22

Mohamed Ezzedin waves his arms and struggles with police as he protests the sentence of ten years at hard labor given him by a military court in Cairo, Egypt on March 23, 1952. Ezzedin was sentenced for his part in the arson, looting and destruction which took place during last January's riots in the city. Eight more youths were given jail sentences on March 23 in connection with the riots, which caused 67 deaths and millions of dollars in fire damage. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

23

Fields guns take up a commanding position on the road to Heliopolis in the northern suburbs of Cairo on July 23, 1952 following the bloodless coup effected by the Egyptian army under the direction of Major-General Mohamed Neguib Pasha. Mohamed Neguib Pasha has proclaimed himself commander-in-chief of the Egyptian army. Hilaly Pasha has tendered his one-day-old cabinet’s resignation. King Farouk has asked Aly Maher Pasha to form a new cabinet. (AP Photo)#

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

24

During a coup d'etat led by General Muhammed Naguib, an Egyptian army tank and field guns are drawn up in front of the royal Abdin Palace, in Cairo, on July 26, 1952. Appointed Premier Ali Maher Pasha issued an ultimatum to King Farouk I, forcing the Egyptian monarch to abdicate. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

25

General Mohamed Neguib Bey,who engineered the recent coup d'etat, broadcasts to the people of Egypt, in Cairo July 24, 1952. After the bloodless coup Aly Maher Pasha took office as Premier and on July 26 issued an abdication ultimatum to King Farouk. The king abdicated in favour of his seven-month-old son, Prince Ahmed Fuad, and left the country for Italy on his royal yacht. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

26

CAIRO, EGYPT - 1952: Meeting of the Egyptian "Free Officers" in Cairo in 1952. The Free Officers forced King Faruq 23 July 1952 to leave the throne and replaced him by his son King Fouad. Mohammed Nagib (2R) Gamal Abdel Nasser (3R) Anwar al-Sadat (From 4L). Others are unidentified. (Photo by AFP/Getty Images) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

27

During a coup d'etat led by General Muhammed Naguib, Egyptian army tanks and field guns are drawn up in front of the royal Abdin Palace, in Cairo, on July 26, 1952. Appointed Premier Ali Maher Pasha issued an ultimatum to King Farouk I, forcing the Egyptian monarch to abdicate. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

28

General Mohamed Neguib Bey, centre in uniform, who engineered the recent coup d'etat in Egypt, with newly appointed Premier Aly Maher, in sunglasses, at Maher's office in Alexandria, July 26, 1952. Maher has just delivered an abdication ultimatum to King Farouk. The king abdicated in favour of his seven-month-old son, Prince Ahmed Fuad, and left the country for Italy on his royal yacht. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

29

Ex-King Farouk of Egypt made his first public statement since he went into exile, at a press conference on the terrace of Hotel Eden Paradiso at Anacapri, Italy on July 31, 1952, where he and his party are staying. Left to right: Queen Narriman; baby-King Fuad II; Farouk; Princess Fawzia; Princess Fadia; nurse (reportedly English); Princess Ferial (completely hidden behind nurse); as they prepare for posing for pictures on the terrace of Hotel Eden Paradiso. (AP Photo/Mario Torrisi) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

30

General Mohamed Naguib Bey, who engineered last week's coup D'Etat in Cairo, gives a press conference at the Egyptian Army general headquarters in Cairo on July 31, 1952, Redently. The new commander in chief of the Egyptian armed forces had just returned to the city from Alexandria. He was there when King Farouk Abdicated in favor of his young son Ahmed Fuad. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

31

Textile workers rounded up by Egyptian police and troops squat outside the Misr spinning factory at Kafr el-Dawar, Egypt on August 21, 1952, following rioting there in which nine people, including a policeman and two soldiers were killed. The factory was damaged by violence and fire. A military court is hearing charges against 29 of the workers. Another worker, 21 year old Mustaf Khamis was sentenced to be hanged after he was found guilty of being one of the principal instigators of the recent strike and riots. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

32

Egyptian feminist Doria Shafik (L) meets 08 August 1952 with Egyptian Chief Army Commander General Naguib in unlocated place. Doria Shafik (1908-1975), an Egyptian feminist, poet, publisher, and political activist, participated in one of her country's most explosive periods of social and political transformation. During the '40s she burst onto the public stage in Egypt, openly challenging every social, cultural, and legal barrier that she viewed as oppressive to the full equality of women. As the founder of the Daughters of the Nile Union in 1948, she catalyzed a movement that fought for suffrage and set up programs to combat illiteracy, provide economic opportunities for lower-class urban women, and raise the consciousness of middle-class university students. AFP/Getty Images #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

33

New Egyptian premier, Mohamed Naguib Bey is seen shortly after he accepted leadership, Sept. 7, 1952. (AP Photo)#

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

34

During the last two days, October 9 and 10, 1952 yelling demonstrators have marched through the Cairo streets shouting Nationalist slogans, threatening the British Embassy and inflicting damage on British and French business premises. The incidents which included the damaging of the offices of the French Air Liquide and the British Thompson Houston Firms, followed the denouncement by the Egyptian Premier Nhas Pasha, of the 1936 treaty which gave Britain certain military rights on the Suez Canal. As a result of the riots police have cordoned off the British Embassy. The British Thompson Houston and French Air Liquide premises are seen locked and guarded after being raided in Cairo, Egypt on Oct. 10, 1951. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

35

Egyptian frontier guards stand to attent during a military parade in Cairo's Ismail Square on Oct. 23, 1952 in celebration of '90 days of Freedom.' The day marked the end of the first three months of major general Mohamed Neguib’s rule. In an address, premier Neguib stated that Egypt was prepared to fight for the liberation of the Nile valley. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

36

Lt. Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, 36-year-old leader of the Revolutionary Command Council of Egypt, is seen during a public appearance to win support for his governing revolution council, on August 1, 1954, at an unknown location. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

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A large crowd storms into the Ministry Council Headquarters 28 March 1954 in Cairo, during a demonstration supporting the revolutionary regime. AFP/Getty Images #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

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A large crowd demonstrates in front of the Ministry Council Headquarters 28 March 1954 in Cairo, during a demonstration supporting the revolutionary regime. AFP/Getty Images #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

39

General Mohamed Neguib (L) and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser leave the last Revolutionary meeting late 23 February 1954. AFP/Getty Images #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

40

A vengeful mob stand around the headquarters of the fanatic Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo, Egypt on Oct. 27, 1954, after putting it to the torch in retaliation against on October 26 attempted assassination of Premier Gamal Abdel Nasser in Alexandria. A Cairo announcement said that a Brotherhood member fired eight shots at Nasser. The arrest of 60 more Brotherhood members, including four of its supreme councilmen, also was announced. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

41

Mohammed Farghali, centre, a Muslim Brotherhood leader, found guilty planning the attempted assassination of Egyptian Premier Gamal Abdel Nasser at Alexandria on Oct. 26th, is escorted to the execution chamber, in a Cairo Prison, Dec. 7, 1954, where he was hung. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

42

This crowd of enthusiastic female admirers of Gamal Abdel Nasser gathered outside his Cairo residence on Jan. 22, 1956, to cheer him after he proclaimed a new Egyptian constitution that promised new rights for women. The feminine contingent hopes the right to vote will be one of their new liberties. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

43

Egyptian Premier Gamal Abdel Nasser waves to a crowd of people as he stands in an open car moving through the streets of Cairo, Egypt on June 19, 1956. Nasser announced at a rally in Republican Square that martial law in Egypt is ended, that the revolution council which has ruled Egypt since King Farouk was deposed is dissolved, that Egypt's new constitution will be ratified and that a new president will be elected. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

44

Egyptians crowd the tops of telegraph poles in Cairo, Egypt on Oct. 1, 1970, for a grandstand view of President Gamal Abdel Nasser’s funeral procession. (AP Photo/Eddie Adams) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

45

Drawn on a gun carriage the flag-covered coffin of President Abdel Gamal Nasser passes through dense crowds in Cairo, Egypt on Oct. 1, 1970. (AP Photo/Dennis Lee Royle) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

46

Praying at the Nasser Mosque in Cairo, Egypt for the late President Gamal Abdel Nasser, on Oct. 2, 1970, from left are; Libyan Head of State, Moammer Gadhafi; United Arab Republic Provisional President Anwar El Sadat; Sudan Head of State, Gaafar Nimeiry; Algerian President Houari Boumediene; Palestinian Liberation Organization leader, Yasser Arafat; Hussein El Shafey, member of Supreme Executive Committee of Arab Socialist Union; Sheikh Mohammed Faham, Rector of Al Azhar University. In second row, at either side of the head of Faham, are two sons of late President Nasser, Abdel Hakim, right, and Khalid Abdel Nasser, left. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

47

In this June 14, 1974 file photo Presidents Anwar Sadat and Richard Nixon shake hands for photographers as they pose in front of the pyramids at Giza, near Cairo. (AP Photo/Horst Faas) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

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United Nations soldiers and journalists attend the historic signing of the Kissinger Agreement, bringing peace between Israel and Egypt in a deal brokered by the US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

49

President Jimmy Carter stands center stage flanked by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, left, and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin as the three leaders shake hands following the signing of the Middle East peace treaty at the White House in Washington, March 27, 1979. The ceremony took place outside the Executive Mansion on the North Lawn. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

50

An undated picture shows late Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (L) waving to a crowd as Vice-President Hosni Mubarak (R) laughs beside him standing in a convertible vehicle. AFP PHOTO/AFP/Getty Images #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

51

Egyptian soldiers fire on Egyptian President Anwar Al-Sadat while reviewing a military parade in honor of The October 1973 War, on October 06, 1981 in Cairo. The assassination is attributed to muslim extremist group Muslim Brotherhood. MAKARAM GAD ALKAREEM/AFP/Getty Images #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

52

Egyptian soldiers tend to wounded after an attack on the reviewing platform which killed Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in Cairo, Egypt, on Oct. 6, 1981. Six others were also killed by members of the Al Jihad movement, religious extremists within Sadat's army, who opened fire during a military parade commemorating the eighth anniversary of the Arab-Israeli War of Oct. 1973. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

53

Egyptian security forces crowd around the doorway of a building in Cairo, Oct. 6, 1981, where Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was taken after he was shot while watching the military parade. Sadat was taken away from the parade via helicopter, left, while the body of a slain security guard lies on the ground at right. (AP Photo) #

2013-07-09 Egypt Revolution History

54

Vice-President Hosni Mubarak casts his vote, 13 October 1981, during a national referendum to decide whether he will succeed the slain President Anwar Sadat as leader of Egypt. Mubarak came to office as Egypt’s fourth president after late President Anwar Sadat was slained by a group of military Islamist fundamentalists with allegiance to the Al-Jihad during a military parade 06 October 1981 and remained in power until resigning after a wave of popular protests in February 2011. TOM HARTWELL/AFP/Getty Images #

 

 

One year after the inauguration of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi, millions of Egyptians marched in city streets and squares across the country, calling for Morsi to resign. Hundreds of thousands of Morsi supporters held competing demonstrations, in some cases, clashing with opponents. Two years after people power toppled the dictatorship of Hosni Mubarak, Egypt's young democracy remains crippled by bitter divisions, as many of those responsible for Mubarak's downfall have been shut out of Morsi's administration. Fears of violence remain high, with Morsi's Islamist supporters vowing to defend him -- 16 have been killed already. Egypt's powerful armed forces gave Morsi an ultimatum today, demanding he share power, urging the nation's feuding politicians to agree on an inclusive roadmap for the country's future within 48 hours, or the military would take unspecified actions. [40 photos]

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A military helicopter is illuminated by green laser lights from below, as it flies above Tahrir Square while a huge crowd of protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi shout slogans against him and Brotherhood members, in Cairo, on June 30, 2013. Egyptians poured onto the streets on Sunday, swelling crowds that numbered into the millions, calling on Islamist President Mohamed Morsi to resign.(Reuters/Mohamed Abd El Ghany)

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Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, on June 30, 2013.(AP Photo/Hassan Ammar) #

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Egyptian protesters shout slogans and wave national flags during a demonstration against Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi in Tahrir Square in Cairo, on July 1, 2013. (AP Photo/ Amr Nabil) #

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Anti-Morsi protesters (bottom) and residents of an area in Sidi Gaber, clash in a side street off a main street where a massive anti-Morsi protest is taking place, in Alexandria, Egypt, on June 30, 2013. (Reuters/Asmaa Waguih) #

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An injured protester is carried from the site of clashes between supporters and opponents of Egypt's Islamist president in Alexandria, on June 28, 2013. (AP Photo) #

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Supporters of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi rally in Nasser City, Cairo, on June 30, 2013. Hundreds of thousands of opponents of Egypt's Islamist president poured out onto the streets in Cairo and across much of the nation Sunday, launching an all-out push to force Mohammed Morsi from office on the one-year anniversary of his inauguration. Fears of violence were high, with Morsi's Islamist supporters vowing to defend him. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar) #

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Supporters of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi hold a rally in Nasser City, Cairo, on June 30, 2013. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar) #

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A supporter of President Mohammed Morsi demonstrates his fighting skills during a rally in Nasser City, Cairo, on June 30, 2013.(AP Photo/Hassan Ammar) #

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Supporters of President Mohammed Morsi stand in formation with sticks as they prepare to protect the presidential palace in Nasser City, Cairo, on June 30, 2013. (AP Photo/Virginie Nguyen Hoang) #

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Supporters of President Mohammed Morsi pose for a photograph in their improvised protective equipment as they prepare to protect the presidential palace in Nasser City, Cairo, on June 30, 2013. (AP Photo/Virginie Nguyen Hoang) #

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Opponents of Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi march towards the presidential palace in Cairo, on June 30, 2013.(AP Photo/Nariman El-Mofty) #

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A girl, with colors of the Egyptian flag and the word "leave" painted on her face, attends a protest against Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi in front of El-Thadiya presidential palace in Cairo, on June 30, 2013. (Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh) #

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Egyptian opposition protesters chant during a demonstration in Tahrir Square as part of the "Tamarod" campaign, on June 30, 2013 in Cairo. The Tamarod campaign, organized by a coalition of opposition political groups, aims to bring down the government of President Morsi through country-wide demonstrations. (Ed Giles/Getty Images) #

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Egyptian protesters chant slogans against President Mohammed Morsi during a rally in Tahrir Square, on June 30, 2013.(AP Photo/Manu Brabo) #

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Hundreds of thousands of Egyptians gather in Tahrir Square during a demonstration against President Mohammed Morsi, on June 30, 2013.(AP Photo/ Manu Brabo) #

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An opponent of Egypt's President Mohammed Morsi, with his face painted with the colors of the Egyptian flag, stands outside the presidential palace in Cairo, on July 1, 2013. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar) #

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Opponents of Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi pray during a protest calling for his ouster at Cairo's landmark Tahrir Square, on June 30, 2013. (Khaled Desouki/AFP/Getty Images) #

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An Egyptian flag flies above protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, during a protest at Tahrir Square, on June 30, 2013.(Reuters/Mohamed Abd El Ghany) #

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Egyptian anti-President Mohammed Morsi protesters sit on lamp poles as one holds a national flag in Tahrir Square, on June 30, 2013. Cairo Tower is seen in the background. (AP Photo/ Amr Nabil) #

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Egyptian protesters wave their hands and hold national flags during anti-President Mohammed Morsi demonstration in Tahrir Square, on June 28, 2013. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil) #

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Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi gather during a demonstration at Tahrir Square in Cairo, on June 30, 2013.(Reuters/Mohamed Abd El Ghany) #

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Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi gather during a demonstration in Tahrir Square, on June 30, 2013.(Reuters/Mohamed Abd El Ghany) #

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Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi protest outside the presidential palace in Cairo, on June 30, 2013.(AP Photo/Hassan Ammar) #

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Laser lights are directed at a military helicopter flying over the presidential palace by Egyptian protestors in Cairo, as hundreds of thousands of Egyptian demonstrators gather during a protest calling for the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi, on June 30, 2013.(Khaled Desouki/AFP/Getty Images) #

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Egyptian protestors shine laser lights on a military helicopter flying over the presidential palace in Cairo, on June 30, 2013, as hundreds of thousands of demonstrators gather during a protest calling for the ouster of President Mohamed Morsi.(Khaled Desouki/AFP/Getty Images) #

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Opponents of Egypt's Islamist President Mohammed Morsi look at a military helicopter lit up by protesters' laser pointers as it flies over the presidential palace, in Cairo, on June 30, 2013. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra) #

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Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi set off fireworks during a protest in Tahrir Square, on June 30, 2013.(Reuters/Mohamed Abd El Ghany) #

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An Egyptian protester mocks President Mohammed Morsi as tens of thousands of Egyptians flock the streets outside the presidential palace protesting against Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood, on June 30, 2013. (Gianluigi Guercia/AFP/Getty Images) #

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Opponents of President Mohammed Morsi light fireworks at a protest outside the presidential palace, in Cairo, on June 30, 2013.(AP Photo/Hassan Ammar) #

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Egyptians opposed to President Mohamed Morsi set fire to the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters in the Moqattam district during clashes in Cairo, on June 30, 2013. (AFP/Getty Images) #

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Protesters opposing President Mohamed Mursi hold the metal signage of the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood after attacking it in Cairo's Moqattam district, on June 30, 2013. (Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh) #

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A protester opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi throws Molotov cocktails at the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood, on June 30, 2013. (Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh) #

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A man inside the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters throws objects towards anti-government protesters throwing rocks, Molotov cocktails and fireworks at the building in Cairo's Moqattam district, on June 30, 2013. (AP Photo/Brian Rohan) #

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A protester who opposes Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi runs after a Molotov cocktails burn him during an attack on the national headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo, on June 30, 2013. (Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh) #

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Smoke rises over the skyline of Cairo, on th morning of July 1, 2013. Four Egyptian ministers resigned from the government on Monday, a cabinet official said, a day after protesters poured onto streets to demand President Mohamed Morsi resign.(Reuters/Amr Abdallah Dalsh) #

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Protesters ransack the Muslim Brotherhood headquarters in Cairo, on July 1, 2013. Protesters stormed and ransacked the headquarters of President Mohammed Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood group early Monday, in an attack that could spark more violence as demonstrators gear up for a second day of mass rallies aimed at forcing the Islamist leader from power. (AP Photo/Khalil Hamra) #

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Egyptian men inspect the burnt headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo, on July 1, 2013 after it was set ablaze by opposition demonstrators overnight. (Khaled Desouki/AFP/Getty Images) #

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An Egyptian man shows spent bullet casings outside the burnt headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood in Cairo, on July 1, 2013.(Khaled Desouki/AFP/Getty Images) #

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Protesters, opposing President Mohammed Morsi, pray during a protest demanding that Morsi resign in Tahrir Square, on July 1, 2013.(Reuters/Suhaib Salem) #

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Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi take part in a protest in Tahrir Square in Cairo, on July 1, 2013.(Reuters/Suhaib Salem)

 

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