Friday, June 15, 2018
The 2014 South Napa earthquake occurred in the North San Francisco Bay Area on August 24 at 03:20:44 Pacific Daylight Time. At 6.0 on the moment magnitude scale and with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe), the event was the largest in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The epicenter of the earthquake was located to the south of Napa and to the northwest of American Canyon on the West Napa Fault.
Total damage in the southern Napa Valley and Vallejo areas was in the range of $362 million to 1 billion, with one person killed and 200 injured. Other aspects of the event included an experimental earthquake warning system that alerted seismologists several seconds before the damaging shear waves arrived, temporary changes in springs and wells, and the potential for postseismic fault creep.
Research suggests the magnitude 6.0 earthquake that rocked California wine country in 2014 may have been caused by an expansion of Earth's crust because of seasonally receding groundwater under the Napa and Sonoma valleys.
The vineyard-filled valleys flank the West Napa Fault, which produced the quake that killed one person, injured several hundred and caused more than $500 million in losses.
The study recently published in the American Geophysical Union's Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth suggests land between the valleys is stretched each summer as groundwater levels fall beneath the valleys and the ground in the valleys sinks and contracts.
'We think it's more of a localized effect, something related to the groundwater system.
'We don't know if it is groundwater pumping specifically, or something related to how the natural aquifer system works, or a combination,' said lead author Meredith Kraner, formerly of the Department of Geosciences at Stony Brook University in New York and now with the University of Nevada, Reno.
Co-authors were William E. Holt of Stony Brook University and Adrian A. Borsa of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego.
The early morning Napa quake on Aug. 24, was the largest to hit the San Francisco Bay Area since the magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake of Oct. 17, 1989.
It left 8 miles (12.8 kilometers) of surface rupture and damaged many historical masonry buildings and older residences, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
Experts have used a radical new satellites to capture unique psychedelic images of the ruptures in the Earth's crust caused by the Napa earthquake.
Radar images from the UK's Sentinel-1A satellite have been used to map the biggest earthquake that has shaken northern California in 25 years.
The images reveal the rupture is larger than previously thought.
Yngvar Larsen from Norway's Northern Research Institute and Petar Marinkovic from PPO.labs in the Netherlands processed this new interferogram from two images: one that Sentinel-1A acquired on 7 August, the day the satellite reached its operational orbit, and another captured on 31 August.
It clearly confirms that part of the West Napa Fault system was responsible for the 6.0 earthquake that rocked California's wine-producing region.
However, the fault had not been identified as being particularly hazardous prior to the quake that hit on 24 August.
Importantly, the extent of the ground deformation in the interferogram shows that the fault slip continues further north than the extent of the rupture mapped at the surface.
Sharp lines in the interferogram show minor movements on other faults, such as the part of the West Napa Fault system that crosses Napa airport.
The maximum deformation is more than 10 cm, and an area of about 30x30 km was affected significantly.
An experimental earthquake warning system being developed by the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory issued a warning upon detecting the P-waves five seconds before the slower, more destructive S-waves arrived in Berkeley. Initially this was reported to be a 10-second warning in Berkeley, but revised information indicates only a 5-second warning was provided. This means the S-waves had already arrived in Napa and Vallejo when the warning was issued.
Seismic Warning Systems, Inc., a private earthquake warning company based in Scotts Valley, CA, had installed on-site warning systems at five fire stations in Vallejo in 2002 and 2003. These systems commanded the bay doors to open at these fire stations between 1.7 and 2.4 seconds before the S-waves arrived at each fire station.
Earthquake warning systems could potentially give people time to take cover in the event of a quake, preventing injuries caused by falling debris, automatically stopping trains or shutting off gas lines. The system being developed at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (called ShakeAlert) in conjunction with the United States Geological Survey, the California Institute of Technology and the University of Washington, will eventually cover the entire West Coast. The system would cost $80 million in funding to run for five years in California, or $120 million for the whole West Coast. In December 2014, United States Congress approved a $5 million allocation as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014 in order to expand funding for development of the system
During the Napa Earthquake, Napa wasn't the only city that suffered significant damage this time last year; parts of Vallejo were also hit hard.
While all eyes were on Napa the morning of the quake, the people of Vallejo were experiencing their own emergency, especially in a downtown lined with century-old buildings.
"It just made a horrific noise and it felt like someone lifted up my house and slammed it back down. And I never saw my husband move so fast," Vallejo resident Lori Nelson said.
On Mare Island, many of the old mansions on Captain's Row coughed up their brick chimneys, a vacant department store on Georgia Street had part of its roof collapse on the floors below, and on Tennessee Street there was a row of stores that had their glass shattered.
"It was a long tumbler, rumbler..." Pastor Al Marks from the First Baptist Church of Vallejo said.
Two historic churches had significant damage. One of them, the First Baptist Church, was red-tagged but not until after a full-day of Sunday services were held inside.
"It wasn't until Monday morning that we had a chance to look a little bit deeper and we saw that the parapet on top of the bell tower had actually separated one side from the other," Pastor Marks.
In all, there were more than 40 structures damaged, but recovery came quickly to Vallejo and with a few exceptions, is nearly complete.
"We've recovered well; we've even recovered about 85 percent of the clams that we've made to FEMA for our response costs," Vallejo city manager Daniel Keen said.
Vallejo not only survived the Napa quake, city leaders learned from it and they say will be better prepared next time.
Posted by ASC at 9:25 PM
What was the Battle of Flodden?
- The battle was fought on 9 September 9, 1513, between an invading Scots army under King James IV and an English army commanded by the Earl of Surrey.
- It ended in victory for the English army, and was the largest battle fought between the two nations
- James IV, King of Scots had invaded to honour the Auld Alliance with France by diverting Henry VIII's English troops from a campaign against the French king Louis XII.
- James invaded England with an army of about 30,000 but, in keeping with the medieval code of chivalry, sent notice to the English, one month in advance.
- The battle took place near the village of Branxton. The Scots had been in a good position at Flodden Edge with their guns but the English managed to lure them away by blocking the Scots' route north.
- The Scots marched towards the English - and James was killed within a spear length from the Earl of Surrey and his body taken to Berwick.The biggest error the Scots made was placing their officers in the front line, medieval style, while the English generals stayed behind the lines in the Renaissance style.
- The other modern touch was that this was one of the first major battles where artillery was usedThe English dead were put at 1500, the Scots listed their dead at 5,000
- Every noble family in Scotland was supposed to have lost a member at Flodden. The dead are still remembered by the song (and pipe tune) 'The Flowers of the Forest'
Posted by ASC at 6:53 PM
From Shakespeare to Hitchcock, London's streets are full of incredible stories –
Busy London streets in the 1950s and 1960s are brought to life in these stunning colour images of life in the Big Smoke
A treasure trove of colour images showing London during the 1950s and 60s offer a vivid glimpse of Britain's past.
The collection shows nostalgic scenes of the capital's iconic landmarks, including Trafalgar Square, Oxford Street and Piccadilly Circus.
The majority were captured by American tourist Charles Cushman, who documented his travels as he explored the world.
Though he only visited twice, his astonishing album gives a sense of what life was like for Londoners more than half a century ago.
Upon his death he left behind nearly 15,000 Kodachrome colour slides to Indiana University, where he previously studies.
The collections is comprised of pictures taken all over the globe, between 1938 and 1969.
These amazing images are part of a series launched by the Museum of London's Street museum app which lets you walk side by side with Londoners from the 19th and 20th century.
They reveal just how much has changed in the intervening years. For instance, Blackfriars station as it is today is pictured alongside the entrance from outside 179 Queen Victoria Street in 1930.
View of Duncannon Street in the City of London decorated with bunting and banners for the coronation ceremony of Edward VII. There are pedestrians and vehicles in the foreground and the National Gallery is visible in the distance
The station was originally called St Paul's and was opened by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway in 1886. A decade or so after it was photographed, the station was bombed in the Blitz. Another image shows the forecourt of the Southern Railway's terminus at London Bridge in 1930. This was the oldest railway terminus in London - built for the line linking London and Greenwich in 1836.
While today, most Londoners view of Victoria is a crowded station with commuters racing past each other, an image from 1950 shows a very different view.
People and traffic in Oxford Street around the turn of the 20th century. Christina Broom at this time photographed London street scenes to reproduce as postcards for sale
A night shot outside the Palace Theatre before an evening's performance. The Frankie Vaughan Season ran from 20 January to 16 February 1958 and included Vaughan as the headliner and artists such as Petula Clark, who was to sing her latest hits. Collins created a number of night-time photographs playing with the bright lights of the West End to record people enjoying the buzz of fifties nightlife
This photograph captures the view north up Brick Lane in Spitalfields, close to the markets. Some of the textile businesses can be seen. Bengali migrants began to arrive in the area from the late 1950s onwards
This image shows Piccadilly Circus, Coronation day, June 1953. Crowds gather to witness the Coronation procession of Elizabeth II. The coronation went ahead in Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953, and at the Queen's request, the entire ceremony was televised throughout the Commonwealth, and watched by an estimated twenty million people
HOW DOES THE APP WORK?
The Streetmuseum app allows users to select a destination from a London map. A historical image of their location then appears onscreen.
For those using the app on the move, it will recognise location and overlay the historic image over the current view - augmenting the reality that the smartphone camera perceives.
The picture juxtapositions commuters with a boy shining his shoes outside the Tea Room in Victoria station. A group of porters can be seen with their trolleys waiting to help travellers with their luggage.
The new locations also expand to the suburbs and outer boroughs of London – from Richmond mods in 1964, Brent Cross road construction in the 1970s to Ealing Suffragettes in 1912 .
Each historic photograph was taken by a renowned photographer, including Henry Grant, Wolfgang Suschitsky, Roger Mayne and George Davison Reid.
People sunbathing in Hyde Park with Marble Arch and the Odeon cinema in the background. The attendant is selling tickets for the deckchairs which are available for hire in the park. The Odeon which was originally a Regal cinema, opened in 1928. The exterior of the building was made from Portland Stone and featured columns and statues however in 1964 it was thought too small and the building was demolished and a larger cinema complex was built in its place
A boy is seen shining his shoes outside the Tea Room at Victoria station in 1950. A group of porters can be seen with their trolleys waiting to help travellers with their luggage
Charing Cross Road is renowned for its specialist and second-hand bookshops. Wolfgang Suschitzky was attracted by the extensive array of second-hand bookshops and teahouses, and the crowds that flocked to them. The resulting series of photographs are amongst Suschitzky's most acclaimed work
Streetmuseum 2.0, developed with creative agency Brothers and Sisters, guides users to sites across London, where hidden histories of the city dramatically appear, illuminated thanks to the Museum of London’s extensive art and photographic collections.
The augmented reality app allows users to select a destination from a London map or use geo-tagging and Google Maps to pinpoint their location.
Once selected, a historical image of their London location appears onscreen, which can be expanded and explored in detail, along with historical information about the subject.
This photograph shows Byward Street near Tower Hill, looking west with the church of All Hallows by the tower on the left and the former Mark Lane Underground station on the right. Reid photographed the streets and buildings of London and the activity in them in the 1920s and 1930s
From the west side of Tower Bridge, George Davison Reid composed this photo looking out across the Upper Pool. This image is atypical of Reid's work, being a posed shot. The children appeared in other photos at different riverside locations. It has been suggested that some of the girls could be Reid's daughters
Street scene at Covent Garden with underground station and horse and cart in the background. George Davison Reid photographed activity in the marketplace from opposite Covent Garden Underground station on Long Acre. A police constable was often needed to control the congestion of the horses and carts and increasing numbers of motorised vehicles. The long established market place was under pressure to move. The congested facilities were described at the time as 'altogether inadequate to the necessities of the trade'. However, the fruit and vegetable market did not relocate until 1973
For those using the app on the move, it will recognise location and overlay the historic image over the current view - augmenting the reality that the smartphone camera perceives.
Anna Sparham, Curator of Photographs at the Museum of London, said: ‘Our collection provides a fabulous visual history of London, across all aspects of London life. Streetmuseum allows these photographs to be seen by a new audience, and in a thrilling context.’
Streetmuseum 2.0 is free to download for iPhone, and is now available on iTunes.
George Davison Reid took this photo of Blackfriars station entrance from outside 179 Queen Victoria Street. The station was originally called St Paul's and was opened by the London, Chatham and Dover Railway in 1886. Above the station were the premises of Oppenheimer Son and Co Limited, which manufactured pharmaceutical specialities. The Times newspaper was also based here in Queen Victoria Street. A decade or so after Reid photographed this exterior, the station was bombed in the Blitz of 1940 and largely destroyed. The offices of The Times newspaper were also hit
A street seller of sherbert and water is photographed on Cheapside completely unaware of the camera. Paul Martin was the first photographer to roam around the streets of London with a disguised camera taking candid pictures such as this solely for the purpose of showing 'life as it is'
The exterior of the completed Gloucester Road Station on the underground Metropolitan and District Railway, which was opened on 3rd October 1868. From a series of 64 photographs taken in the late 1860s by Henry Flather to document the construction of the railway from Paddington to Blackfriars via Kensington, Westminster and the new Victoria Embankment. Construction was by the 'cut-and-cover' method used to build the first underground railways before the development of the tunneling shield by James Henry Greathead . The first tunneled, or 'tube', railway in London was the City & South London Line, which opened in 1890
A view of the forecourt of the Southern Railway's terminus at London Bridge. This was the oldest railway terminus in London, having been built for the line linking London and Greenwich in 1836. The double-decker bus on the right belongs to the London General Omnibus Company which was, in 1933, to become part of the London Transport System
A view of Bow Lane, off Cheapside in the City of London, looking south to the crossing with Watling Street and St. Mary Aldermary in the middle distance. 'Ye Olde Watling' tavern was originally built just after the Great Fire of 1666. George Davison Reid supported the Society of Antiquaries of London, which promoted the study of London's architecture, and was interested in photographing older architecture and locations. He took this photo of Bow Lane in the late 1920s
Britain after the Blitz: Fascinating pictures from the age of austerity show children playing amid the ruins more than a decade on from the end of the war
Black and white photos of 1950s and 1960s Chelsea show the now immaculate borough in complete disarray.
More than a decade on from the blitz, children still played among rubble and derelict sites as the country struggled to refind its feet.
Renowned Kensington photographer John Bignell cast his forensic eye over the desolate district, which would one day resurrect itself as the most expensive in the country.
Boys make a den out of planks, bricks and a fallen tree behind a block of studio flats in Chelsea in 1950. The 1885-built Wentworth Studios on Manresa Road miraculously survived the German bombs of 1940-1941. They would soon be surrounded by fresh housing to accommodate for the growing population and dramatic loss of homes
'Sabateurs': Playful lads in 1960 take to the mangled coupe with a metal implement. With parking spaces nothing like the precious commodity they are now, these children were free to play and climb all day on the long-abandoned vehicle
Children playing on Dovehouse Green. Now one of the country's most sleek and slick boroughs, Chelsea had its fair share of post-war clean up to deal with. The swathes of children who had no modern day gadgets to entertain them would make their own games in abandoned gardens
A broken down car acts as a play thing for two boys who appear in one image climbing on the collapsed coupe.
And with health and safety laws a phenomenon of the distant future, another shot captures three children lifting metal poles double their size in an abandoned work site.
Groups would flock to demolition sites to make dens and run around with nothing like a TV to keep them occupied.
No health and safety: These children look delighted heaving around metal poles on a rubble-ridden work site. Topless with soft shoes, they are an image of the bygone era. Photographer John Bignell was keen to capture the essence of post-war life in the capital
Water play: This spot of the Thames by Battersea Bridge is where the likes of Bear Grylls, Damian Hirst and Nick Cave moor their house boats. 24-hour security is now in place to prevent people from walking by the quirky homes - but in the early 1950s children could climb on the floating bits of broken boats
Tide out: Boys took advantage of the low tide to run around London's sandy banks. With some of the capital's greatest landmarks downstream, the children are happy enough splashing rocks by the geese and boats
Following the Blitz, London was facing a housing crisis with a growing population and dramatic loss of homes.
The borough's first attempt at high-rise flats, just after the country's first block went up in Holborn, was astonishingly unmanned and open to anybody considering the scale of the project.
But the streets weren't the only indication of disorder. In the same spot of the Thames by Battersea Bridge - where celebrities such as Damian Hirst and Bear Grylls moor their luxurious houseboats - Mr Bignell snapped children clambering over bits of wood.
Desolate: Boys and girls kick a ball around a quiet Uverdale Road, which is now filled with parked cars and a gated playground. Just down the road from major bomb sites, this was one of a cluster of streets that became a ghost town int he wake of the Blitz
Baseball: In 1955, photographer John Bignell captured this group playing baseball in Tite Street - formerly home to Oscar Wilde. In spotted dressed and suit trousers, the young boys and girls look dashing as they frolic around under the sun peaking through the trees
On dry land, down the road from the Royal Hospital obliterated by German bombs, they kicked a football around Uverdale Road - now jam-packed with cars and a gated playground.
Another shot frames a baseball match on today's uber-expensive Tite Street, which is littered with blue plaques.
The girls in Mr Bignell's shots opt for dancing over den-building.
Following Holborn's lead, Chelsea started building some of the country's first high-rises. John Bignell snaped a gaggle of lads in a balletic pose tools left out by the work men. For such a large-scale project, it is astonishingly unmanned and open to anybody
Ladies of leisure: Little girls stretch to catch a glimpse of themselves in a dusty old mirror trying on hats at a Chelsea jumble sale in 1955. Striking their best pose, they are far more interested in girly games than making dens
Ecstatic: The same group turns to the camera for a smile as they gleefully carry their new and packaged purchases. One clutches weekly serial Tip-Top - a storybook comic
He pictured the now nostalgic era of dance halls in Land's End, Chelsea, where girls would practice their waltz and foxtrot.
As jiving began to take off, children would spend their holidays and weekends practicing the art before they were old enough to go to a 'dance' to court.
Venturing out, the girls dress up in hats at a jumble sale - gazing at their reflection in a dusty mirror balanced on a brick wall in the street.
Turning on the camera, the girls laugh and scream - one clutching a copy of Tip Top, a weekly comic book.
Made in Chelsea: The teenaged girls of the day practiced their waltz and foxtrot in Victor Silvester's dance hall. They would dance with each other for now until they were old enough to go to dances with boys where courting would begin. Compared to the clubs of today, dancing then was a well-practiced
Putting it into practice: Here in a youth club in Land's End, Chelsea, girls and boys put their steps together as a live band tooted out a 1950s melody on trumpets. As jiving began to take off, children would spend their holidays and weekends in workshops perfecting the art
The ORIGINAL Google Earth view of London - circa 1909!
These stunning aerial photographs over London make up the first-ever comprehensive bird's-eye view of our capital city - dating back to 1909.
The photos, showing Buckingham Palace, Westminster, South Kensington and even Chelsea's football ground Stamford Bridge, were taken by pioneering scientist Sir Norman Lockyer.
He took to the skies in a helium balloon and soared 500ft over London to shoot the breathtaking never-before-seen views.
Crystal-clear palace: Sir Norman Lockyer's revolutionary 1909 aerial photograph of Buckingham Palace
Palace match: An aerial image of Buckingham Palace today (with the addition of nearby tower blocks)
Thames in olden times: A view of Westminster in 1909, at a time when London served as a busy port for international sea trade
Time and tide: The same stretch of river, now with added attractions such as the London Eye
A collection of 70 glass slides and negatives of the ground-breaking journey are to go under the hammer - but are only expected to fetch £500.
Lockyer is credited with discovering helium - and used his knowledge of the gas to lift off into the skies over the capital in 1909.
He then used his expertise to explore his hobby of photography - snapping the incredible portraits on a Victorian box-style camera.
The first official aerial survey of London was not completed until 1917.
Through the looking glass: An auctioneer holds a photographic glass negative of Westminster taken by scientist Sir Norman Lockyer in balloon flights over London
High flyer: Scientist Sir Norman Lockyer used his expert knowledge of helium to fly over London to take aerial photos eight years before an official survey in 1917
Sir Norman's revolutionary pictures, taken in bright daylight to ensure maximum exposure, show virtually car-free roads in the capital at the turn of the 20th century.
Many of London's famous landmarks and old Victorian buildings remain the same - but the streets are clean and empty.
The capital's now giant skyline is pictured in its infancy, with low-rise properties punctuated by some of the world's most famous sights.
A gleaming Westminster is shown - minus the towering London Eye - and Chelsea's football ground Stamford Bridge can be seen with just one stand by the side of the pitch.
London as it was in 1909: While many landmarks and features remain the same, the lack of traffic in Trafalgar Square marks this image out from a time long gone
Bustling scene: In this modern image of the area around Trafalgar Square, high-rises are now visible - as well as the arched terminal at Charing Cross station
Its terracing and athletics track make it far removed from the 41,800 all-seater stadium it is today, more than 100 years later.
The West London football club, now owned by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich, had only been founded in 1905 - four years earlier.
Stamford Bridge was opened in 1877 as a home for London Athletics Club until The Blues took over in 1904.
The stadium's highest ever attendance was 82,905 for a league match with Arsenal in October 1935.
Black and white and blue all over: Chelsea's Stamford Bridge stadium with only one stand as it looked on November 7, 1909
Over-head kicks: Aerial view of the modern-day Stamford Bridge stadium in Chelsea with its new stands
Trafalgar Square, now filled with the daily hustle and bustle of tourists, is shown desolate in the morning sunlight.
Parliament Square, St Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and Big Ben also feature in the clear slides. All the black and white shots - including others from Egypt and Suez - will be up for grabs at the Dominic Winter auction house, in Cirencester, Gloucester, on November 16.
Pictures of Sir Norman are also available in the collection which will go under the hammer at the aviation and motoring auction.
The pioneering scientist, born Joseph Norman Lockyer, who also founded influential science journal Nature, died 11 years after his balloon flight over London.
Victorian splendour: A picture of Kensington taken by scientist Sir Norman Lockyer in 1909
Height of modernity: The Albert Hall hasn't changed but tall buildings have sprouted up
Square route: Image of Sloane Square taken on Sir Norman Lockyer's 1909 balloon journey over London
Green scene: Modern aerial view of Sloane Square now covered in trees and made into a roundabout
Posted by ASC at 3:41 PM