This is the history that the USA school system does not teach, that of Manifest Destiny, before it existed as a coherent thought.
The ceding of the Philippines to the USA, sparked a three year long war between the USA and their previous Philippine allies. This war was sparked when a US sentry discovered three armed Philippine soldiers on a bridge and fired at them – that was 4 February 1899. It’s dangerous to be an ally of the USA. Below is the pictorial history of that war, the Philippine American War.
Jan. 23, 1899: Inauguration of the First Philippine Republic
Feb. 9, 1899: Battle of San Roque, Cavite Province
San Roque (ABOVE, in 1899) lies about 22 miles (35 km) southwest from Manila by road; a narrow artificial causeway about 600 yards (meters) in length separates it from mainland Cavite Province. [LEFT, 1896 map].
It adjoins the Cavite navy yard that fell under American control after the battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898. (In 1903, the town of San Roque was merged into Cavite Nuevo, which, in turn became Cavite City; San Roque has been reduced to a district).
On the night of February 4, word reached the Americans at the yard that the Filipinos had attacked US forces in Manila .
The call to arms was sounded. From across the bay the thunder of guns and the roll of volleys told that the conflict was on. The Americans expected that the Filipinos would attack them from San Roque, but they did not.
51st Iowa Volunteers in the Philippines, 1899
Immediately thereafter sentries and outposts were established at the outskirts of San Roque by a battalion of the 51st Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment under the command of Col. John T. Loper.
American outpost at San Roque, Cavite Province, 1899.
American outpost at the causeway separating San Roque and mainland Cavite Province
Batteries were placed opposite the approach from the causeway separating San Roque and Cavite Nuevo. Gatling guns were placed on bastions, and field pieces were trained on the blockhouses of the Filipinos, while the gunboats Manila and Callao were anchored close inshore in readiness to lend assistance to the Americans in case it was needed.
Filipino entrenchments commanding the causeway connecting the Cavite peninsula with the mainland
On the afternoon of February 8, the Americans sent 2Lt. John A. Glass, of the 1st Battalion of California Heavy Artillery (California National Guards), with a flag of truce and an escort to the Filipino commander, General Salvador Estrella, and presented him with Commodore George Dewey’s demand that the Filipinos evacuate San Roque; unless the demand was complied with before nine o'clock of the following morning, the town would be bombarded.
San Roque burns
On February 9, at 7;30 a.m., a party of three, headed by the Mayor of San Roque, came over the American line and asked for further time. Commodore Dewey, who was ashore, refused, and the delegation immediately returned. A white flag was then hoisted over a Filipino blockhouse, but it was a bluff, intended to draw the advance of American troops into a trap. Shortly thereafter the town was set ablaze by the Filipinos.
Gun. No. 3 of the California Heavy Artillery shelling Filipino positions at 1,200 yards (meters), San Roque, Cavite Province.
American troops in San Roque fighting
Two battalions of the 51st Iowa Volunteers, the Wyoming Light Battery and the Nevada Cavalry, with Batteries A and D of the California Heavy Artillery were dispatched across the causeway. Every passage through San Roque was a seething mass of flames, and in order to gain entrance to the town it was necessary for the Americans to flank it by moving along the seashore. The Americans fought their way through the flames of the burning town in pursuit of the retreating Filipinos, dragging their heavy guns by hand, and skirmishing whenever the opportunity afforded.
Fortifications at San Roque built by the Filipinos
Americans in San Roque battle
Filipino POWs at San Roque
Ruins of San Roque
Burr Ellis, of Frazier, Valley, California, narrated what he did in San Roque, Cavite. He wrote:
"They did not commence fighting over here for several days after the war commenced. Dewey gave them till nine o’clock one day to surrender, and that night they all left but a few out to their trenches, and those that they left burned up the town, and when the town commenced burning, the troops were ordered in as far as possible and said, 'Kill all we could find.' I ran off from the hospital and went ahead with the scouts. And you bet, I did not cross the ocean for the fun there was in it, so the first one I found, he was in a house, down on his knees fanning a fire, trying to burn the house, and I pulled my old Long Tom to my shoulder and left him to burn with the fire, which he did. I got his knife, and another jumped out of the window and ran, and I brought him to the ground like a jack-rabbit. I killed seven that I know of, and one more, I am almost sure of: I shot ten shots at him running and knocked him down, and that evening the boys out in front of our trenches now found one with his arm shot off at the shoulder and dead as h____. I had lots of fun that morning...."
The Wichita Daily Eagle, Feb. 10, 1899, Page 1
American guard mount at San Roque, 1899.
American officers in command at San Roque, 1899.
American troops in possession of Teatro Caviteño in Cavite Nuevo (now Cavite City). The theater was Emilio Aguinaldo's first military headquarters upon his return from Hong Kong on May 19, 1898. It was here that the Philippine national flag was hoisted for the first time on May 28, 1898 after the Filipinos defeated the Spaniards in the battle of Alapan, Imus, Cavite. The town of San Roque was merged into Cavite Nuevo in 1903.
The New York Times, issue of Feb. 10, 1899
Feb. 10, 1899: Battle of Caloocan
Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr. (central figure) and staff near Caloocan. At extreme left is Capt. Charles G. Sawtelle Jr., Asst. Quartermaster; 2nd from left is Colonel (later Brig. Gen.) Frederick Funston; 3rd from right is Maj. Putnam Bradlee Strong, Asst. Adjutant General; and 2nd from right is Maj. John Mallory, Inspector General.
After capturing La Loma, Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr. pushed toward Caloocan, an important railroad center 11 miles (17 km) north of Manila. For several days, trainloads of Filipino soldiers were seen landing in the town.
Old Spanish gun mounted by the Filipinos near Caloocan to control the railroad between Manila and Malolos.
It also barred the way to Malolos, Aguinaldo's capitol. General Antonio Luna together with a Belgian-trained engineer, Jose Alejandrino had constructed trenches to defend Caloocan.
La Loma Church: General MacArthur's headquarters before the Battle of Caloocan. PHOTO was taken in February 1899.
Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr. directing the American advance on Caloocan.
20th Kansas Volunteers digging trenches just before the engagement at Caloocan
1st South Dakota Volunteers and a section of a light battery behind entrenchments just before the battle of Caloocan
Original caption: "The Montana Regiment Waiting The Order To Advance On Caloocan."
Original caption: "Idaho volunteers near Caloocan, waiting to be called to the Front"
Edward Stratemayer in his article entitled UNDER OTIS IN THE PHILIPPINES described the capture of Caloocan: "On to the town! was the next cry and into the city they advanced, the Filipinos contesting every step stubbornly but unsuccessfully. A stand was taken at a church and at several public and private buildings; but the blood of the Americans was not up and they forced the rebels out, in many cases at the point of the bayonet. Compelled to give up the city, the Filipinos tried their best to burn the main portion of the town, and soon the smaller houses were a mass of flames. An attempt was also made to burn the church and the city hall, but here the Americans interferred and many of the rebels were caught and taken prisoner. The general advance had begun at one o'clock in the afternoon. At half past five, Old Glory was swung to the breeze from the flagstaff of the city hall and rebel sway in Caloocan became a thing of the past. When the smoke of war cleared out, the inhabitants of the town found their homes in ashes, the buildings razed to the ground and only the Casa Tribuna, the church, and the convent remained standing."
Original caption: "The trenches before Caloocan afforded the best test of soldierly nerve under the strain of constant expectation of attack. The guns are here being placed in position for the coming battle. The defense is admirable."
US Battery at Caloocan
1899 painting, drawn from eyewitness accounts, by G.W. Peters. Title: "The Battle Before Caloocan, February 10, 1899--View from the Chinese church". Maj. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr., is the khaki-clad officer with binoculars; the battery of Utah Artillery is on the middle foreground, while the 10th Pennsylvania Volunteers occupy the ground behind the wall. This print came from the book, "Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain", published in 1899.
Describing the Caloocan battle, Charles Bremer, of Minneapolis, Kansas, wrote:
"Company I had taken a few prisoners, and stopped. The colonel ordered them up in to line time after time, and finally sent Captain Bishop back to start them. There occurred the hardest sight I ever saw. They had four prisoners, and didn’t know what to do with them. They asked Captain Bishop what to do, and he said: 'You know the orders', and four natives fell dead.”
Capt. David S. Elliot, of the 20th Kansas Volunteers, said: "Talk about war being 'hell,' this war beats the hottest estimate ever made of that locality. Caloocan was supposed to contain seventeen thousand inhabitants. The Twentieth Kansas swept through it, and now Caloocan contains not one living native. Of the buildings, the battered walls of the great church and dismal prison alone remain. The village of Maypaja, where our first fight occurred on the night of the fourth, had five thousand people on that day—now not one stone remains upon top of another. You can only faintly imagine this terrible scene of desolation."
Original caption: "The Advance On Caloocan --- On The Firing-Line Of The Kansas Volunteers."
Volley firing by the 20th Kansas Volunteers, 1899
20th Kansas Volunteers advancing across an open field, 1899
Arthur Minkler, of the 20th Kansas Volunteers: ""We advanced four miles and we fought every inch of the way;... saw twenty-five dead insurgents in one place and twenty-seven in another, besides a whole lot of them scattered along that I did not count.... It was like hunting rabbits; an insurgent would jump out of a hole or the brush and run; he would not get very far.... I suppose you are not interested in the way we do the job. We do not take prisoners. At least the Twentieth Kansas do not".
During the battle, the Kawit Battalion from Cavite refused to attack when given the order by Gen. Antonio Luna. Because of this, he disarmed and relieved them of their duties. Soldiers from this same Cavite battalion later assassinated Luna in Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija on June 5, 1899.
Igorot POWs at Caloocan
The Igorots --- hardy mountaineers from the Cordilleras of northern Luzon island---sent a contingent of men to fight the Americans at Caloocan. The warriors were armed only with spears, axes, and shields.They were commanded by Maj. Federico Isabelo "Belong" Abaya (LEFT), a native of Candon, Ilocos Sur Province. He was a member of the Espiritu de Candon, a revolutionary group in Candon. On March 25, 1898, he led the so-called Ikkis ti Kandon (Cry of Candon), drove away the Spaniards from the town and beheaded the Spanish parish priest (Fr. Rafael Redondo) and two visiting friars. He served in the Philippine Army under General Manuel Tinio, and later became guerilla commander in southern Ilocos under Col. Juan Villamor of Bangued, Abra Province
Abaya was born in 1854 to a well-to-do family and died in battle on May 3, 1900. He and 10 men were at the mountain village of Guilong, Galimuyod, 11 miles east of Candon, when they encountered a 30-man patrol of Company G, 33rd Infantry Regiment of United States Volunteers (USV). The Americans were led by 2Lt. Donald C. McClelland. Abaya died with 2 of his men and 3 were captured. There were no casualties on the American side. [Guilong has been renamed "Abaya" in honor of the hero].
Igorot POWs at Caloocan
The Igorots soon fell out with the Philippine army and became U.S. allies, acting as guides for American troops in the rugged highlands of northern Luzon. A Tingguian Igorot, Januario Galut, led U.S. troops to a position where they could surround and defeat the forces of Gen. Gregorio del Pilar at Tirad Pass on Dec. 2, 1899.
Many of the Igorots who served in Aguinaldo's army later joined the colonial Philippine Constabulary.
The mortal combat at Caloocan killed Luna's Chief of Staff, Major Bautista of the Territorial Militia, and Captain Licero of Malolos.
The Annual Report of the U.S. War Department listed 5 American dead and 45 wounded; 200 Filipinos killed and 800 wounded.
10th Pennsylvania Volunteers atop captured Filipino blockhouse
Original caption: "Flags of truce in the streets of Caloocan"
(LEFT) Caloocan Church after bombardment by Admiral George Dewey's fleet. (RIGHT) Americans set up a field telegraph station inside the church
Caloocan Church, after the battle. The American photographer wrote: "Caloocan, six miles north of Manila, bombarded by guns of the 'Charleston' and 'Monadnock' and leveled to the ground by fire, was a sorry sight as the Twentieth Kansas regiment advanced. The insurgent dead lay in great numbers for it was here that the Kansans won their first great victory. What was a prosperous town was in a few moments wiped out of existence. The church was afterwards used as headquarters."
A US soldier signals from the tower of Caloocan church to Manila Bay, spelling out a message to the monitor Monadnock over the intervening Filipino lines
Original caption: "View of Caloocan, showing burned district"
US army ambulances at Caloocan
Conveying wounded American soldier, February 1899
Trainload of dead and wounded Americans at Caloocan
Original caption: "On the road to Caloocan --- the aftermath. Photograph by Lieut. C.F. O'Keefe, U.S.A."
Dead Filipino soldier at Caloocan
Filipinos killed by the Utah Light Battery at Caloocan. Fred D. Sweet, of the Utah Light Battery: "The scene reminded me of the shooting of jack-rabbits in Utah, only the rabbits sometimes got away, but the insurgents did not."
Theodore Conley, 20th Kansas Regiment: "Talk about dead Indians! Why, they are lying everywhere. The trenches are full of them...There is not a feature of the whole miserable business that a patriotic American citizen, one who loves to read of the brave deeds of the American colonists in the splendid struggle for American independence, can look upon with complacency, much less with pride. This war is reversing history. It places the American people and the government of the United States in the position occupied by Great Britain in 1776. It is an utterly causeless and defenseless war, and it should be abandoned by this government without delay. The longer it is continued, the greater crime it becomes—a crime against human liberty as well as against Christianity and civilization..."
Men of Company B, 1st Idaho Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 1899
Americans with captured Filipino smooth-bore cannon at Caloocan
The station at Caloocan, on the Manila to Dagupan railroad, captured by the Americans on Feb. 10, 1899.
Train captured from the Filipinos at Caloocan. The Americans secured 5 engines, 50 passenger coaches, and 100 freight cars. Photo was actually taken shortly before the Battle of Quingua, Bulacan Province, on April 23, 1899
The Atlanta Constitution of Georgia reports on the capture of Caloocan, issue of Feb. 11, 1899
Emilio Aguinaldo's first wife was Hilaria del Rosario (LEFT, 1898 photo) of Imus, Cavite Province, whom he married on Jan. 1, 1896. She was born in 1877. They had five children: Miguel, Carmen, Emilio Jr., Maria and Cristina.
Hilaria organized the Hijas de la Revolucion (Daughters of the Revolution), which later became the Asociacion Nacional de la Cruz Roja (National Association of the Red Cross), considered a kind of precursor of the present Philippine National Red Cross.
On Feb. 17, 1899, the Malolos Republic approved the Constitution of the National Association of the Red Cross. The Republic appointed Hilaria del Rosario Aguinaldo as President of the Association. In its first five months it had thirteen chapters. She and others helped to organize and distribute the needed food and medicines to wounded Filipino soldiers.
On Oct. 5, 1899, Mrs. Aguinaldo spoke to the soldiers assembled in Tarlac:
"...Were it not a shocking thing for us to wear trousers and to carry rifles ... we [the women] members of the Philippine Red Cross -- would aid you in the struggle and die by your side, for what would our lives amount to if we should still have to live in slavery? Though I am a weak woman, I can assure you that my prayer is for all the Filipino people..."
She accompanied her husband in his long and arduous trek to northern Luzon, from Nov. 13, 1899 in Bayambang, Pangasinan, until Dec. 25, 1899 in Talubin, Bontoc, Mountain Province; on that Christmas day, Emilio Aguinaldo, wishing to spare the 5 women in his entourage from further hardships (Hilaria, Aguinaldo's sister, Col. Manuel Sityar's wife and Col. Jose Leyba's 2 sisters) ordered Colonel Sityar and another officer to accompany the women and surrender to the Americans in Talubin. Hilaria was reunited with her husband soon after his capture by the Americans on March 23, 1901.
Hilaria and son Miguel. Photos taken in 1901.
Hilaria del Rosario Aguinaldo died of tuberculosis in Kawit, Cavite on March 6, 1921.
A view of the native hut used as a hospital during the Philippine-American War by the International Red Cross Society
Francis A. Blake, of California, in charge of the Red Cross, wrote after a battle:
"I never saw such execution in my life, and hope never to see such sights as met me on all sides as our little corps passed over the field, dressing wounded. Legs and arms nearly demolished; total decapitation; horrible wounds in chests and abdomens, showing the determination of our soldiers to kill every native in sight. The Filipinos did stand their ground heroically, contesting every inch, but proved themselves unable to stand the deadly fire of our well-trained and eager boys in blue. I counted seventy-nine dead natives in one small field, and learn that on the other side of the river their bodies were stacked up for breastworks."
The War in the Visayas, Feb. 11, 1899 - March 10, 1899
On Feb. 11, 1899, the US First Separate Brigade commanded by Brig. Gen. Marcus P. Miller, West Point Class 1858, invaded Iloilo City (ABOVE, in 1899) on Panay Island. The defenders were led by General Martin Delgado and Teresa "Nay Isa" Magbanua y Ferraris, the Visayan "Joan of Arc".
Company G., 1st Tennessee Volunteer Infantry Regiment
The brigade consisted of elements of the 1st Tennessee Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 18th US Regular Infantry and 6th US Artilley. The Americans were assisted by several ships from Admiral George Dewey's squadron (the war vessels Baltimore, Boston and Petrel, troop transports Arizona, Newport and St. Paul, and the launches Iloilo and Vicenti). The invasion force totaled 3,322 men.
At 9:30 a.m., Saturday, February 11, the gunboatPetrel and the cruiser Baltimore bombarded the Filipino shore trenches. Forty-eight marines from the Boston and a company from the Petrelwere sent ashore. The Filipinos retreated.
The Filipino soldiers burned Iloilo to prevent the Americans from making it as their base of operations. The Swiss consul's residence was burned. The entire Chinese and native sections of the city were destroyed, but foreign mercantile property escaped with slight damage.
The Semi-Weekly Gazette and Bulletin of Williamsport, Pennsylvania reports on the capture of Iloilo, issue of Feb. 14, 1899.
D. M. Mickle, Tennessee Regiment, at Iloilo:
"The building had been taken possession of by a United States officer, and he looted it to a finish. I suspected something and followed one of his men to the place. I expected to be jumped on by the officer as soon as I found him there, as I was away from my post, but it seems he was afraid I would give him away; in fact, we were both afraid of each other. He was half drunk, and every time he saw me look at anything he would say, "Tennessee, do you like that? Well, put it in your pocket"........The house was a fine one, and richly furnished, but had been looted to a finish. The contents of every drawer had been emptied on the floor. You have no idea what a mania for destruction the average man has when the fear of the law is removed. I have see them—old sober business men too—knock chandeliers and plate-glass mirrors to pieces just because they couldn’t carry them off. It is such a pity."
Jaro, Iloilo: Gordon's Scouts from Rhode Island. Photo taken in 1899. The soldiers actually belonged to Company G, 18th U.S. Infantry Regiment (Regulars); the company commander was Capt. Walter H. Gordon.
On February 14, the town of Santa Barbara was captured by the Americans. Next they captured Oton, Mandurriao, and Jaro.
The San Francisco Call, issue of Feb. 26, 1899
American forces occupied Cebu on February 22 and Bacolod on Negros Island on March 10.
Before the Fil-Am War broke out, General Leandro Fullon was appointed by Emilio Aguinaldo as commanding general of all Filipino forces in the Visayas. On Sept. 6, 1898 he left Cavite at the head of an expeditionary force to Panay Island. He arrived in Pandan, Antique Province, on Sept. 21, 1898 with 140 officers and 340 men. Together with Generals Ananias Diokno (from Luzon) and Martin Delgado (from Iloilo), they led Filipino troops against Spanish forces under General Diego de los Rios.
Throughout the conflict with the Americans, Fullon urged military leaders on the island--both from Luzon and Panay-- to remain united. There was tension between the Luzon troops and those indigenous to the Visayas. The short-lived Malolos government had feeble authority over the revolutionary movements in the Visayas and Mindanao.
The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas and Mindanao, established on Nov. 17, 1898 in Sta. Barbara, Iloilo, was fuelled by federalist tendencies. These clashed with the unitary and centralized tendencies of the Malolos Congress where Tagalogs overwhelmingly outnumbered representatives from other regions.
The Visayans resented attempts by Malolos to assert its authority. The Luzon force was regarded by the Visayan revolutionaries, led by the Visayan supremo, Gen. Martin Delgado, as an ''invasion'' force.
Fullon surrendered to the Americans on March 22, 1901. After the civil government was organized, he was appointed governor of Antique on April 15, 1901, a post that he held until he died on Oct. 16, 1904. Fullon was born in Hamtik, Antique on March 13, 1873.
Ananias Diokno was born on Jan. 22, 1860 in Taal, Batangas Province. He distinguished himself against the Spaniards in the Batangas-Laguna-Tayabas zone.
On April 28, 1899 President Emilio Aguinaldo appointed him as the civil and military governor of Capiz Province. He undertook guerrilla warfare against the Americans on Panay Island.
On March 18, 1901, Capt. Peter Murray, 18th US Infantry and 1Lt. Frank C. Bolles, 6th US Infantry, with detachments, located Diokno atBarrio Dalipdan, Capiz. Diokno was wounded and captured; two of his men were killed and 3 captured.
In 1916, the Americans offered him the directorship of the Bureau of Agriculture, but he refused. He died on Nov. 2, 1922.
Ananias Diokno was the grandfather of Jose "Pepe" Wright Diokno, famed nationalist, human rights advocate, CPA and Bar Topnother, lawyer, secretary of justice and senator, who died of cancer in 1987 at the age of 65.
Martin Teofilo Delgado (RIGHT) was born on Nov. 11, 1858 in Sta. Barbara, Iloilo, the second child of a rich and aristocratic Spanish mestizo family. He finished his early schooling at Sta. Barbara Parochial School. Later, he enrolled at the Seminario de San Vicente Ferrer in Jaro. For further studies, he enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal in Manila and obtained his diploma as a school teacher. After finishing his studies in Manila. he returned to his hometown and taught in a public school for some time.
Shortly after Commodore George Dewey had smashed the Spanish fleet at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 and blockaded the capital, the hard-pressed Spanish colonial government organized Filipino volunteer militia in the different regions of the Philippines. General Ricardo Monet, the Politico-Military Governor of Iloilo Province, appointed Martin Delgado as captain and commander of the 125-strong Voluntarios in Sta. Barbara.
Delgado and his men turned around and joined the revolution against Spain.
On Nov. 17, 1898, at the plaza of Santa Barbara, Delgado proclaimed the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Visayas and Mindanao. He raised the Philippine flag sent by General Emilio Aguinaldo. It was the first time that the Filipino national flag was hoisted outside of Luzon Island. When the flag reached the top of the bamboo pole, the air reverberated with cries of Viva Filipinas! Fuera España! Viva Independencia! The band struck up the Marcha Libertador composed by General Delgado's brother Posidio.
The provisional government was later replaced by a Politico-Military Government on Nov. 23, 1898, composed only of the Visayas, because the Visayan leaders finally preferred instead, a federal arrangement composed of --Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, as a logical substitute because of its indigenous elements.
With the merger on Dec. 2, 1898 of the Independent Republic of Negros and the Cantonal Government of Bohol (established in August-1898); the Panay government that included Romblon (part of Capiz), based in Iloilo was renamed Federal Republic of the Visayas, patterned after the U.S. Federal and Cantonal government of the Swiss Confederation.
On April 28, 1899 President Emilio Aguinaldo abolished the Federal Republic and appointed Delgado as the civil and military governor of Iloilo Province under the central Philippine government. He waged guerrilla warfare against the Americans on Panay Island.
He surrendered in Jaro, Iloilo on Feb. 2, 1901.
General Martin Delgado (SEATED, CENTER) as Governor of Iloilo Province. Photo was taken in 1903.
The Americans appointed Delgado as the first governor of Iloilo Province in May 1901 and served until 1904.
He became Mayor of Sta. Barbara. Delgado died in Culion island on Nov. 12, 1918.
April 2006: Iloilo Governor Niel D. Tupas, Sr., greets General Martin Delgado's immediate kin, Leticia Delgado and Martin Delgado III, during ceremonies honoring Iloilo's past governors At extreme right is Iloilo First Lady Myrna Causing Tupas
Teresa "Nay Isa" Magbanua y Ferraris, "Visayan Joan of Arc", was born in Pototan, Iloilo on Oct. 13, 1868. She studied at the Colegio de San Jose in Jaro, Iloilo; in 1885, she was sent to Manila and enrolled at Colegio de Santa Rosa and then atColegio de Santa Catalina to train as a teacher. She was a classmate of Dona Aurora Aragon, later the first lady of President Manuel Quezon of the Commonwealth. Teresa finally obtained a teacher's certificate from the Colegio de Dona Cecilia in 1894. She taught at several schools in the province of Panay.When she married Alejandro Baldero, a rich landowner from Sara, Iloilo, she gave up her teaching career to work on the farm. While on the farm, she learned the rough ways of farm life, learning how to ride a horse and fire a pistol. By then however, the Philippine revolution had started and two of her brothers had become officers in the revolutionary army.
She joined the revolutionary forces at the age of 28. In the battlefield, she bravely led men soldiers. Her unit won the battle of Sap-ong near Sara, Iloilo. The commander of the Revolutionary foces in the Visayas, General Martin Teofilo Delgado, commended her bravery and military abilities and entrusted her leadership in many military encounters throughout Panay island. Nay Isa fought the Americans in the Battle of Iloilo City on Feb. 11, 1899. No official record exists that proves Aguinaldo had promoted Magbanua to the rank of general. But her troops considered and addressed her as such. After the fall of the Filipinos' regional headquarters in Sta. Barbara, Magbanua shifted to guerrilla tactics. Her brother Elias died at age 19 from the bullet of a Filipino guide working with the Americans. In 1900, she disbanded her unit and surrendered.
Nay Isa remained childless and was widowed shortly after the outbreak of the war with the Japanese. Teresa sold all her property in Iloilo to help finance the guerrilla forces. She migrated to Mindanao and lived with her sister, Maria, in Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur. Here she would die in August 1947 at the age of 78, with the rare distinction of having fought all of her country's colonizers.
Iloilo in the late 1890's
Iloilo, 1898: Calle Real (now J.M. Basa St.)
Iloilo: Street scenes, 1899.
Iloilo, Feb. 11, 1899: Original caption: "The house on the left side of the street remains intact after the American invasion of Iloilo; the house on the right was not as lucky."
American soldiers on Panay Island, 1899.
Iloilo: Americans lined up for mess at their headquarters kitchen. Photo taken in 1899.
Iloilo: The cathedral of the Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria (Our Lady of the Candles) as it looked in 1899; built in 1864, it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1948 and rebuilt in 1956.
Cebu town in the late 1890's
Chinese shoemakers in Cebu. Photo was taken in 1899.
1900: Cebu Provincial Capitol Building
1900: The Parian (Chinese) district, Cebu town (became a City in 1937)
1900: A street in Cebu town (became a City in 1937)
American soldiers at an outpost; photo undated and location in the Philippines not specified
Second Battle of Manila, Feb. 22-23, 1899
After pushing back the Filipino lines in the first battle of Manila and the suburbs on Feb. 4-10, 1899, Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis waited for more reinforcements from the United States.
The San Francisco Call, issue of Feb. 22, 1899
Aguinaldo used the lull to reorganize and discuss plans for taking Manila. The districts of Tondo, Santa Cruz, and Malate were to be set on fire.
Harper's Weekly, April 24, 1899 edition, drawn by G.W. Peters
Church in Santa Cruz district, Manila
The attack occurred on February 22. At around 8:00 p.m., fire broke out in the wealthy quarter of Santa Cruz district (during the 19th-century, the parian neighborhood of Santa Cruz commanded the highest in rental prices, compared to those in other districts of Manila. Businessmen, especially the foreigners, preferred the structures of Santa Cruz, especially those warehouses along the Pasig River, which facilitated the swifter delivery of their merchandise through the cascos or boats that plied the city’s esteros).
John Bass, a correspondent from Harper's Magazine, describes the event as "Manila's Night of Terror."
Escolta, the principal business street in Manila. Photo taken in 1899
Fire spread towards the Escolta business area. John Bass reported: "Someone was cutting the hose. The firemen were suspected. At last a soldier caught a Malay bending over the hose and prodding it with a large knife. The soldier bringing his rifle down with a violent blow, broke the native's back."
Feb. 23, 1899: A house in Tondo set on fire by Filipinos. The U.S. Army reported that 60 buildings of stone, 150 substantial wooden structures with iron roofs, and about 8,000nipa houses were destroyed.
Original caption: "Driving the insurgents out of the burning nipa section of Tondo district."
Another fire broke out in Tondo. Luna's men led by Col. Francisco "Paco" Roman had infiltrated the rear of the American lines and pushed towards Tondo. Another element from Roman's group rushed deep into Calle Jolo (now Juan Luna St.).
Manila burns: US soldiers firing at Filipinos, Feb. 23, 1899
The fire, the blare of guerrilla bugles and the shooting confused the Americans. They made their stand on Calle Iris near the Bilibid Prison and waited for reinforcements.
Chinese quarters and business street in Manila. Photo taken in 1898 or 1899.
By now the Binondo market was on fire, but Lucio Lucas --another Luna officer--and his men failed to reach the Meisic police station, his prime objective ((Meisic derived from "Maintsik", which today is Manila’s Chinatown).
The Americans had learned of the planned attack earlier, and were prepared to meet him. Lucas's men retreated towards Calle Azcarraga. In hand-to-hand combat they broke through the American detachment there and disappeared into the night.
The Americans counter-attacked the next day with fresh troops and gunboats. They pushed the Filipinos into Tondo (LEFT, dead Filipinos on a Tondo street). At the tramway station, Paco Roman's men resisted until late in the morning. Others were able to hold a blockhouse but had to withdraw for lack of ammunition.
On February 24, General Luna reported to Aguinaldo that had it not been for the refusal of the Cavite soldiers to attack when ordered, "our victory would have been complete." General Otis, horrified by Luna's bold plan, admitted that the attack was "successful in its inception and primary stages." Aguinaldo took propaganda advantage of the small victory even as Luna accused him of holding back the Cavite soldiers (Aguinaldo's provincemates).
The troops composing the US Eighth Army Corps under General Otis's command by this time were of regulars 171 officers and 5,201 enlisted men and of volunteers 667 officers and 14,831 enlisted men, making an aggregate of 838 officers and 20,032 enlisted men.
American photograper's caption: "At the battle of Tondo ---work of Minnesota men"
Original caption: "An old man killed while picking chicken in the Filipinos' headquarters in Tondo during the insurgent outbreak"
Luna's attack plan, though a good one, failed for lack of coordination and sufficient firepower. General Luna managed to provide artillery support by using a single Krupp breech-loading cannon firing a six-inch projectile weighing 80 pounds. It was manned by Spanish prisoners with MacArthur’s Headquarters at the house of Engineer Horace L. Higgins as target. Higgins was the general manager of the English-owned Manila Railway Company. This singular artillery piece was neutralized by American counter-battery fire.
During the battle in Gagalangin, Tondo, Manila, a German observer, Prince Ludwig von Loewenstein, was accidentally killed by a stray American bullet.
The Annual Report of the U.S. War Department listed 5 Americans killed and 34 wounded; 500 Filipinos killed and wounded.
Original caption: "Minnesota & 23rd Infantry guarding burned district"
Photo published in The St. Paul Globe, Feb. 26, 1899
"Bomberos" of the Manila Fire Department, Photo taken in 1899. An American artist wrote at the back of this photograph: "Never known to get there on time".
Feb. 23, 1899: Ruins of Tondo
Feb. 23, 1899: Ruins of Tondo; photo includes the American photographer's original caption.
Manila: Terra Basta Street in ruins
Manila, 1899: Market scene outside ruins of old market
Combats between Manila and Lake Laguna de Bay
1899 US Army map of the district between Manila and Lake Laguna de Bay (lower right corner)
With fresh troops from the U.S. mainland, Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis ordered the clearing of the country between Manila and Lake Laguna de Bay, and a push to the north and capture Aguinaldo.
1899: Review of Company I, 12th US Infantry Regiment, at the Luneta, Manila
U.S. troop strength was 20,851 at the start of hostilities on Feb. 4, 1899; the average strength was 40,000 during the 40-month war (peaking in 1900 to 2,367 officers and 71,727 enlisted men). By war's end, a total of 126,468 American soldiers had served in the Philippines. Also, beginning in September 1899 Macabebe Filipinos --- and in the next two years --- Ilocanos, Cagayanos, Boholanos, Cebuanos, Negrenses and Ilonggos were recruited and served as scouts for the US Army. These regional Filipino scout units were integrated and organized as the Philippine Scouts on Feb. 2, 1901. The Philippine Constabulary was inaugurated on Aug. 8, 1901.
The 3 rifles used in the Philippine-American War by US services---Above, the Winchester Lee, used by the Navy and Marine Corps; in the Center, Springfield, used by most of the Volunteers; Below, the Krag Jorgensen, the weapon of the Regulars. PHOTO taken in 1899.
Twenty-six of the 30 American generals who served in the Philippines from 1898 to 1902 had fought in the Indian Wars. Sixteen graduates of the United States Military Academy at West Point died in combat against the Filipinos. Eighty Americans were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Filipino strength at the start of the war was about 20,000 soldiers with 15,000 rifles. In succeeding months, it ranged between 20,000 - 30,000. The number of rifles dwindled as the war dragged on, as many malfunctioned, or were captured by American troops. Ammunition ran low; the Filipinos were forced to manufacture their own cartridges and powder. The makeshift gunpowder lacked power and released thick black smoke that revealed their positions.
The Filipino infantry was tough and hardy, requiring few supplies, and had demonstrated its competence by easily overrunning Spanish garrisons. However, it was relatively poorly trained and the officer corps was weak.
Worst, among the Filipino military and political leaders, disunity caused divisions, usually along regional lines. Although they faced a common enemy who enjoyed vastly superior military training and resources, they still found time to engage in personal, and often bitter quarrels, with disastrous and tragic consequences to the First Philippine Republic.
This color-tinted photo of US soldiers was taken in 1899, somewhere in Luzon Island.
Original caption: "There goes the American soldier and all Hell can't stop him, P.I."
Two members of a US cavalry unit
Americans bury their dead at a graveyard near Fort San Antonio de Abad, Malate district, Manila
The Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk, Virginia, issue of March 17, 1899, Page 1
Guadalupe Church and Convent before destruction
Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton (LEFT) led five American regiments against Filipino forces entrenched in the area surrounding the church at Guadalupe, San Pedro de Macati (now Makati City).
The official US report listed 3 Americans killed and 25 wounded; it estimated Filipino losses at 200 dead and wounded.
1st California Volunteers positioned near the Guadalupe Convent
US gunboat Laguna de Bay bombards Guadalupe Convent. The side-wheeled steamer used to be a passenger boat that plied the Manila - Lake Laguna de Bay route; Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis purchased her from a Spanish firm. Capt. Frank A. Grant of the Utah Volunteer Light Artillery armored the boat and mounted eight guns upon her. The gunboat was about 125 feet long and 37 1/2 feet wide.
Filipinos killed at Guadalupe
A battalion of the 1st Washington Volunteer Infantry Regiment under Maj. John J. Weisenburger attacked Pateros on March 14, 1899.
From Taguig, the Americans crossed a channel in cascos and by swimming and stormed the Filipino entrenchments at Pateros. The town took fire and burned. The Filipinos withdrew.
The Americans suffered 1 killed and 5 wounded.
Pasig: Battery A, Utah Volunteer Light Artillery, commanded by Capt. Richard W. Young, West Point Class of 1882. Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, sitting among the bananas, and Captain Young, at his back, are watching the progress of the advancing American troops.
Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton attacked the town of Pasig with a Provisional Brigade consisting of: a gunboat, 20th Infantry; 22nd Infantry; two battalions 1st Washington Volunteer Infantry; seven companies 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry; one platoon 6th Artillery, and three troops 4th Cavalry.
The Pasig expedition was the first organized campaign against the Filipinos. General Wheaton's instructions were to "drive the enemy beyond Pasig, striking him wherever found".
American losses were 1 killed and 3 wounded. The New York Times reported that the Americans found 106 dead Filipinos and 100 new graves near Pasig, and that the 20th Infantry took 175 prisoners. [A separate American report estimated Filipino dead at 400].
Reserves of the 22nd Infantry Regiment awaiting their call to the firing line. They are taking their rest just before the general advance on Pasig.
The 22nd US Infantry awaiting orders for the general advance upon Pasig. The original black and white photo was color tinted in 1902, but the artist incorrectly gave the soldiers blue uniforms; in fact, they were khaki.
Original caption: "The wall of fire. Part of the firing line near Pasig, March 15, 1899. It represents volley-firing in clock-like order at the insurgent intrenchments. The picture was taken just before the general advance." Colorized photo shows 2nd Oregon Volunteers --- armed with 45-70 caliber Springfield "trapdoor" rifles --- correctly portrayed in their blue uniforms.
Skirmish line of 2nd Oregon Volunteers at Pasig
2nd Oregon Volunteers at Battle of Pasig
Original caption: "This shows effect of first smokeless powder used by Americans in the Philippines. The guns are the old Springfield model. Photograph taken during heat of the action at Pasig. In this instance it is long distance firing." This is a colorized version of preceding photo of 2nd Oregon Volunteers.
Skirmish line of 1st Washington Volunteers at Pasig
Skirmish line of 1st Washington Volunteers at Pasig
Original caption: "Taking of Pasig --- In the distance to the left the city is seen, and in front the puffs of smoke from the insurgents' rifles, while half way down the open field the American line is returning the fire, being reenforced by others who are hurrying from the boat on the other side of the river. In the background are the reserve troops who have been protecting the advance."
Original caption: "Driving the insurgents through the jungle near Pasig."
Original caption: "Driving the insurgents through the jungle near Pasig."
Dead Filipino soldiers at Pasig
St. Paul Daily Globe, St. Paul, Minnesota, issue of March 16, 1899, Page 1
US troops in front of church at Pasig
Another view of the church at Pasig. American soldiers, barely visible in the photograph, are seen in the lower right corner.
Original caption: "The Church Saint Sat On By A Washington 'Johnnie', Pasig, P.I."
American bivouac at Pasig, March 1899.
Two Americans guard a bridge on the main highway at Pasig
US troops returning to Manila after the battle of Pasig
Original caption: "The Washington Boys repulsing an attack of Insurrectos on March 26, 1899, at Pasig, P.I."
Following their defeat in the main battle, the Filipinos occasionally harassed the American garrison at Pasig.
Original caption: "Expecting a Filipino Attack behind the Cemetery Wall, Pasig, Phil. Islds."
Company G of the 1st Washington Volunteers in action at Pasig
Company G of the 1st Washington Volunteers in action at Pasig
20th US Infantry men returning with their dead; 1899 photo, unspecified location
On March 16, 1899, Maj. William P. Rogers, CO of the 3rd Battalion, 20th US Infantry Regiment, came upon the Filipinos in Cainta, about 1,000 strong, and forced them to retreat. He burned the town. Two Americans were killed and 14 wounded, while the Filipinos suffered about 100 killed and wounded.
Upon the approach of the Americans, Exequiel Ampil, the Presidente Municipal of Cainta and a former agente especial of the Katipunan who had become a pronouncedAmericanista, strongly advised the Filipino soldiers to surrender. Instead, they shot him. Although wounded, Ampil managed to escape.
But the patriots did not let sleeping dogs lie.
On March 3, 1902, the New York Times reported: “…Felizardo, at the head of twenty-five men armed with rifles, entered the town of Cainta…and captured the Presidente of Cainta, Señor Ampil, and a majority of the police of the town. Señor Ampil has long been known as an enthusiastic American symphatizer, and it is feared that he may be killed by the enraged Ladrones. A strong force of constabulary has been sent to try to effect his release.” [Timoteo Pasay was the actual leader of the guerilla band that kidnapped Ampil on Feb. 28, 1902].
A village in the town of Morong, Morong Province. PHOTO was taken during the period 1899-1901.
On March 4, 1902, near the hills of Morong town, Ampil found an opportunity to escape. A detachment of constabulary was taken from the garrison at Pasig and stationed at Cainta for his protection. He survived the war.
[ A considerable number of the population of Cainta are descended from Indian soldiers who deserted the British Army when the British briefly occupied the Philippines in 1762 to 1764. These Indian soldiers, called Sepoys, were recruited from among the subjects of the Nawab of Arcot in Madras, India. They settled in Cainta and intermarried or cohabited with the native women. The Sepoy ancestry of Cainta is very visible in contemporary times, particularly in Barrio Dayap near Barangay Sto Nino. Their distinct physical characteristics --- darker skin tone and taller stature --- set them apart from the average Filipino who is primarily of Malay ethnicity, with admixtures of Chinese and Spanish blood. ]
The 22nd US Regular Infantry Regiment, 1st Washington Volunteers and 2nd Oregon Volunteers, all under the overall command of Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton, engaged Filipino troops led by General Pio del Pilar in the town of Taguig. The Americans suffered 3 dead and 17 wounded; Filipino losses were 75 killed in action.
March 19, 1899: Companies D and H, 1st Washington Volunteer Infantry Regiment, firing at Filipinos from behind the stone wall of the church at Taguig
Some US troops form a skirmish line just outside the church compound
Moments later, the rest of the Americans break out from the church compound to advance across an open field -- Filipinos 800 yards in front.
Original caption: "The Open Field Over Which The Washington Boys Charged The Filipinos From The Church Tower. Taquig, P.I."
March 19, 1899: Company H, 1st Washington Volunteers, at Taguig church.
The church at Taguig. Photo taken in the early 1900s.
Colonel John H. Wholley, Commanding Officer, 1st Washington Volunteer Infantry Regiment; he graduated from the US Military Academy at West Point in 1890.
Gen. Del Pilar distinugished himself in the revolution against Spain. But like most Filipino generals, he fared badly against the better-trained and well-equipped Americans. During the battle of Manila on Feb. 5, 1899, General del Pilar's troops in Pandacan were dislodged and pushed back to the Pasig River where they were shot down "like fish in a barrel" by young American marksmen who learned their skills in the backwoods and prairies of America.
Pio Del Pilar was born "Pio Castañeda" on July 11, 1865 in Culi-culi, San Pedro de Macati (now Makati City). In May, 1896, he joined the Katipunan and formed a Katipunanchapter called Matagumpay (Triumphant) and he took the symbolic name Pang-una(Leader). He changed his last name to "Del Pilar" to safeguard his family and prevent them from harassment by Spanish authorities.
He, General Mariano Noriel and several others persuaded Emilio Aguinaldo to withdraw his order commuting the death sentence on Andres Bonfacio and his brother Procopio to banishment under heavy guard to Mt. Pico de Loro, Maragondon, Cavite.
In his memoirs, Aguinaldo wrote: ""Upon learning of my wish, Generals Pio del Pilar and Mariano Noriel rushed back to me. "Our dear general,' General Pio del Pilar began, 'the crimes committed by the two brothers, Andres and Procopio, are of common knowledge. If you want to live a little longer and continue the task that you have so nobly begun, and if you wnat peace and order in our Revolutionary Government, do not show them any mercy."
The Bonifacio brothers were executed on May 10, 1897.
In January 1899, Del Pilar was appointed chief of the "Second Zone of Manila" by Gen. Antonio Luna. The second zone comprised Pasig and other areas south and southeast of Manila, including the Morong District.
On June 9, 1900 he was captured in San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan Province but was set free on June 21. On that day, Maj. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr., now military governor, issued an amnesty, as a result of which some prominent Filipino prisoners, Del Pilar among them, took an oath of allegianceto the United States.
However, he continued to work for the guerilla underground and was rearrested. On Jan. 16, 1901 he was deported to Guam along with Apolinario Mabini, Gen. Maximo Hizon, Gen. Artemio Ricarte and Pablo Ocampo. They left on the US transport Rosecrans.
He return to the Philippines in February 1903 after agreeing to re-take the oath of allegiance to the United States.
He died on June 21, 1931. He is the acknowledged official hero of Makati City. Today, the monument in his honor stands at the intersection of Paseo de Roxas and Makati Avenue.
Taytay Church in ruins. It survived the American rampage on March 19, 1899, but succombed to more fighting a few months later. On June 3, 1899, US gunboats shelled Filipino positions in the town. The US Army claimed that the Filipinos, upon leaving the following day, had fired the church.
On March 20, 1899, A.A. Barnes of Battery G, 3rd Artillery, wrote to his brother in Indiana that they had burned the town of Taytay the night before in retaliation for the murder of an American soldier: "Last night one of our boys was found shot and his stomach cut open. Immediately orders were received from General [Loyd] Wheaton to burn the town and kill every native in sight, which was done...About one thousand men, women and children were reported killed. I am probably growing hard-hearted for I am in my glory when I can sight my gun on some dark skin and pull the trigger."
Americans Advance To Malolos, March 24-31, 1899
The city of Manila is located in the lower right corner of this 1899 US Army map.
Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur Jr.'s column advanced along the Manila-Dagupan railway to the north. Malolos, the Filipino capitol, and the capture of Aguinaldo were the prime objectives. But it had to overcome defenses put up by the Filipinos along the way.
The Manila to Dagupan Railway Terminus on Azcarraga St. (now Claro M. Recto Ave.), Manila (also known as the Tutuban Railway Station). Photo was taken in late 1898 or early 1899. The building still stands, although it has been converted into a shopping mall.
Original caption: "Members of the Seventeenth Infantry head for action in the Philippine Islands."
Filipino soldiers packed on wagon trains as they head for the war front. [Photo taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
March 1899: US-based Munsey's Magazine features General Emilio Aguinaldo, describing him as "The Filipino Dictator" and "Self-appointed President of the Philippine Republic".
General MacArthur's formidable pursuit force consisted of about 12,000 men drawn from the following units:
VOLUNTEER INFANTRY REGIMENTS (8): 1st Montana, 1st Nebraska, 1st South Dakota, 1st Washington, 1st Wyoming, 2nd Oregon, 10th Pensylvania, 13th Minnesota and 20th Kansas.
REGULAR INFANTRY REGIMENTS (3): 17th, 20th and 22nd.
ARTILLERY (3): 3rd (as infantry), 6th and Utah Light.
CAVALRY (1): 4th
The Americans estimated Filipino strength at about 30,000 men.
Malabon: American skirmish line, March 25, 1899.
The Battle of Malabon took place on March 25-26, 1899, with smaller engagements in Caloocan (March 25), San Francisco del Monte (March 25), Polo (March 25), Malinta (March 26) and Meycauayan (March 26).
Ten US regiments were engaged. At Malabon, the Americans suffered 16 killed and 130 wounded; the Filipinos lost 125 men killed and 500 wounded.
Utah Light Battery firing on Malabon
On March 25, the Americans advanced towards Malabon (near Caloocan). Describing their adventures in Malabon, Anthony Michea of the Third Artillery wrote: "We bombarded a place called Malabon, and then we went in and killed every native we met, men, women, and children. It was a dreadful sight, the killing of the poor creatures. The natives captured some of the Americans and literally hacked them to pieces, so we got orders to spare no one."
Original caption: "Hotchkiss Quick Firing Gun shelling Filipinos as they were leaving Malabon, March 26, 1899"
Filipinos KIA at Malabon
Filipinos KIA at Malabon
Dead Filipino at Malabon
Original caption: "Sadness in victory - our 'Boys' caring for dying Insurgents - Battlefield of Malabon, P.I."
More Filipino wounded at Malabon
American photographer's caption: "On the road to Malabon. Huts that had to be burned to keep natives from re-entering the same and doing a bushwhacking." US army commissary wagons are seen on the right half of the photo.
March 25-26, 1899: Bridge at Malabon showing span blown out by Filipinos
Peter MacQueen, correspondent of The National Magazine, covered the Malabon battle. PHOTO was taken at Malabon, March 26, 1899.
SAME SCENE AS PRECEDING PHOTO. Peter MacQueen and an American soldier enjoy a meal on a bamboo table. This Filipino family was displaced by the fighting. Note the white flag of truce they had put up.
Malabon: Filipino prisoners; these men appear to be innocent non-combatants.
Malabon: Filipino prisoners captured by the 2nd Oregon Volunteers
The Atlanta Constitution of Georgia, USA, issue of March 27, 1899, reports on American victories at Malabon, Polo and Malinta
Filipinos destroying the railway between Polo and Meycauayan towns, Bulacan Province
A white US soldier wrote home: "The weather is intensely hot, and we are all tired, dirty and hungry, so we have to kill niggers whenever we have a chance, to get even for all our trouble."
March 1899: Troops of the 3rd US Infantry Regiment resting near Malinta, Bulacan Province
March 26, 1899: US troops at Malinta, Bulacan Province
March 26, 1899: Dead Filipino at Malinta, Bulacan Province.
March 26, 1899: Wounded Filipino POWs at Malinta, Bulacan Province
1899: Dead Filipinos lie where they fell, somewhere in Central Luzon
Filipino prisoners being brought into the American encampment, March 1899.
Original caption: "Filipino prisoners and their captor." Photo taken in 1899, location not specified.
1899: U.S. soldiers and Filipino POWs gather near the Manila Cathedral, Intramuros district, Manila
Filipino troops retreating from Americans; photo taken in 1899, location unspecified
Filipino civilians with flag of truce; photo taken in 1899, location unspecified
Original caption: "How the Twentieth Kansas boys were met by conquered natives, Philippine Islands." Photo was taken in 1899.
Two mortally terrified Filipino women are being brought in for interrogation. Photo was taken in 1899, location unspecified. The Manila correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger reported, “Our men have been relentless, have killed to exterminate men, women, children, prisoners and captives, active insurgents and suspected people from lads up to 10, the idea prevailing that the Filipino was not much better than a dog . . .” (In Cabugao, Ilocos Sur, on June 21, 1900, five US soldiers ---John Wagner, Edward Walpole, Harry Dennis and John Allance and a Private Meeks---who were sickened by the atrocities perpetrated by their fellow Americans, deserted to the Filipino side; on Nov. 25, 1900, in the same town, another American, Private William Hyer, joined the Filipinos).
Colorized photo of Filipino POWs at Marilao
General Pantaleon Garcia (RIGHT) came down from Dagupan, Pangasinan Province, by train with about 1,000 riflemen and 4,000 bolo men, and took positions at Marilao.
On March 27, 1899, seven US regiments assaulted Garcia's entrenchments. The 1st South Dakota Volunteers and the 3rd US Artillery, acting as infantry, were thrown forward.
The South Dakotas charged across an open space on the east of the railway to the edge of some woods. They lost 10 killed and 11 wounded, including 3 lieutenants.
The 3rd US Artillery charged on the edge of the railroad and lost 2 killed and 7 wounded.
On the left the Filipinos in a trench east of the Marilao river offered a stubborn resistance. But they were soon forced to retreat.
Overall, American losses were 14 killed and 65 wounded. Filipino losses were 90 killed and 30 taken prisoner.
The Bulletin of San Francisco, California, in its March 27, 1899 issue, reports imminent capture of Emilio Aguinaldo. The Filipino leader was actually captured nearly two years later, on March 23, 1901
The Atlanta Constitution, in its March 28, 1899 issue, reports stiff resistance put up by the Filipinos
On March 29, Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr. advanced to Bocaue, and at 11:45 am he advanced toward Bigaa (now Balagtas), and at 3:15 pm he turned toward Guiguinto, 3 1/2 miles (6 km) from Malolos. There was some fierce fighting in the afternoon. Troops crossed the river at Guiguinto by working artillery over the railroad bridge by hand and swimming mules against fierce resistance.
Original caption: "For the Stars and Stripes! Death in the ranks of the Kansans" [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
Original caption: "A 'hot time' on the firing line -- the famous 20th Kansas in action". [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
Filipinos in their trenches
Americans carrying a dead comrade from the battlefield, somewhere in Central Luzon Island, 1899.
Original caption: "Work of the Kansas boys." A Kansas soldier wrote, "The country won’t be pacified until the niggers are killed off like the Indians." [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon Island]
Ellis G. Davis, Company A, 20th Kansas Volunteers:
"They will never surrender until their whole race is exterminated. They are fighting for a good cause, and the Americans should be the last of all nations to transgress upon such rights. Their independence is dearer to them than life, as ours was in years gone by, and is today. They should have their independence, and would have had it if those who make the laws in America had not been so slow in deciding the Philippine question. Of course, we have to fight now to protect the honor of our country but there is not a man who enlisted to fight these people, and should the United States annex these islands, none but the most bloodthirsty will claim himself a hero. This is not a lack of patriotism, but my honest belief."
Original caption: "Burial of the enemy." [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
Cpl. Robert D. Maxwell, Company A, 20th Kansas Volunteers:
"Sometimes we stopped to make sure a native was dead and not lying down to escape injury. Some of them would fall as though dead and, after we had passed, would climb a tree and shoot every soldier that passed that way. Even the wounded would rise up and shoot after we passed. This led to an order to take no prisoners, but to shoot all."
American soldiers fording a river. Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon.
Troop B, 4th U.S. Cavalry Regiment, crossing over pontoon bridge somewhere in Central Luzon. The troop commander was 1Lt. Samuel Rutherford. Photo was taken in 1899.
American troops are conveyed upstream into the interior of Luzon by an armored steam launch, navy boats, and "cascos" (Filipino house boats), 1899.
US troops taking guns across the Bigaa River on the bridge constructed by their engineering battalion
March 29, 1899: 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry Regiment in action against Filipinos at Bigaa
March 29, 1899: Wounded Filipino POWs at Bigaa, Bulacan Province
March 29, 1899: American soldiers bringing Filipino POWs across the Bigaa River.
March 29, 1899: Filipino prisoners at Bigaa, Bulacan Province
Issue dated March 29, 1899
American author J.D. Givens's caption: "Carrying tenderly those who have tried to slay us". American soldiers load a wounded Filipino POW onto a train. [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
American photographer's caption: "Died in action. These words are simple, but they speak volumes. They tell the sublimest act of one's life; of his death for his country. The view of the battle field strewn with dead. The central figure is that of a hero as he died defending his country's honor". [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
20th Kansas Volunteers attend to a wounded comrade. [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
US troops returning with their dead and wounded. [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
Americans conveying their dead from the battlefield. [Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon]
Original caption: "This is an army supply train en route to Malolos. The wagons are hauled by a species of buffalo peculiar to the Philippines. It is a patient animal somewhat livelier than the American ox. It does the hard labor of the islands." Photo was taken in late March 1899.
Malolos: A portion of the US firing line; Filipinos are among the trees in front
March 30, 1899: The American photographer's caption: "A battle is in progress at this point, but a white flag is seen approaching from the position of the native army, and the order to cease firing is given, while the men anxiously await the result." Photo depicts men of the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry Regiment near Malolos
On March 30, the Americans reached the outskirts of Malolos. At the sight of a white signal of surrender, the Americans broke into cheers but the bearers suddenly broke and ran back into the town. An instant pursuit was begun and the US troops were received with heavy volleys. The Americans camped all night outside Malolos. The battle opened at daybreak.
Americans advancing on Malolos
March 31, 1899: 20th Kansas Volunteers cautiously entering Malolos. Colonel (later General) Frederick Funston, Kansas Volunteers: "The boys go for the enemy as if they were chasing jackrabbits........I, for one, hope that Uncle Sam will apply the chastening rod, good, hard, and plenty, and lay it on until they come into the reservation and promise to be good 'Injuns'."
At the end of the main street of the town, they were met by a barricade of stones from which a hot fire was poured by a few Filipino soldiers. Col. Frederick Funston leaped from his horse and swinging his hat, led the 20th Kansas Volunteers over the barricade and down the streets with terrific yells, firing as they ran.
The Associated Press cabled: "Colonel Funston, always at the front, was the first man in Malolos, followed by a group of dashing Kansans." But the town was deserted.
President Emilio Aguinaldo had moved his government 30 miles (50 km) farther to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija Province.
American losses were 8 killed and 105 wounded. Filipino casualties were unknown.
Filipino soldiers at Malolos
Original caption: "The desperate character of the insurgents is shown in this wanton destruction of Malolos church. It was fired by them as they fled before the Americans just entering the town. It was done partly in revenge against the religious orders." Malolos Cathedral, also known as the Basilica Menor dela Nuestra Señora de Immaculada Concepcion, was used by Aguinaldo as the Presidential Palace and seat of power of the First Philippine Republic. His soldiers left delayed-fused explosives which detonated and set the building on fire.
Original caption: "The Insurgent House of Congress on Fire, Malolos, P.I."
Malolos: The church and smoking ruins of Aguinaldo's headquarters
President Emilio Aguinaldo's ruined headquarters
Original caption: "Distribution of troops in various portions of the town for preservation of lives and property of loyal natives, and to fortify against attacks of insurgents, as well as to insure the general safety." Malolos, March 31, 1899.
Original caption: "Public square in Malolos after troops entered city, March 31, 1899"
US soldiers at Malolos public square
US soldiers inspect Malolos jail where 5 Americans and several Spanish friars were kept as prisoners by the Filipinos
U.S. troops resting near the public square at Malolos. Photo was taken on March 31, 1899. Source: Jonathan Best Collection.
US troops at Malolos, March 31, 1899.
An American soldier inspects a captured Filipino improvised iron pipe cannon.
Battery B of the Utah Volunteer Light Artillery at Malolos
22nd U.S. Infantry on review at Malolos, March 31, 1899
Original caption: "Chinese flags are everywhere flying for the protection of lives and property of Chinese residents and merchants. These flags were always respected as covering neutrals and non-combatants." PHOTO was taken at Malolos, March 31, 1899.
Malolos: Chinese men smoking cigarettes. Photo taken shortly after the Americans had captured the town..
The American photographer's caption: "Wretched inhabitants and principal Street of Aguinaldo's abandoned Capital, Manolos, Philippines. Photographer: Underwood & Underwood Publisher: New York. Date of Publication: c1899."
Original caption: " The last word that he uttered was 'Mother,' an affecting scene after the Battle of Malolos, P.I."
General Loyd Wheaton on horseback at Malolos.
Original caption: "The proclamation of General Luna is posted upon the wall near the door. The officers are Generals Otis, McArthur and Hale. Photograph was taken within half hour following evacuation of insurgents." PHOTO was taken at Barrio Barasoain, Malolos, March 31, 1899.
Original caption: "Congressional hall and executive building occupied by Aguinaldo and his aids. Here Aguinaldo took the oath of office. After the Filipinos were driven away, Gen. McArthur made it his headquarters. Photograph taken on first day of occupation." Malolos, March 31, 1899.
Original caption: "Burying Filipinos after the battle of Malolos, P.I."
The First Philippine Commission, Left to Right: Jacob Gould Schurman, Admiral George Dewey, Charles Denby and Dean C. Worcester. The fifth member was Maj. Gen. Elwell Otis (absent from the photo). Both Dewey and Otis regarded the body as useless and seldom attended meetings.
On Jan. 20, 1899, Pres. William McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission (the Schurman Commission) to investigate conditions in the Philippines and make recommendations. The Commission was presided over by Jacob Gould Schurman, president of Cornell University and a professor of Christian ethics and moral philosophy.
Members of the First Philippine Commission in complete attendance. LEFT to RIGHT: Dean C. Worcester, Charles Denby, Jacob Gould Schurman, John MacArthur (secretary), Admiral George Dewey, and Maj. Gen. Elwell Otis.
The members of the Commission were Dean C. Worcester (Professor at University of Michigan), Charles Denby (Ambassador to China), Admiral George Dewey (Head of the American Asiatic Squadron), and Maj. Gen. Elwell Otis (Military Governor of the Philippines).
It arrived in Manila on March 4, 1899, a month after the outbreak of the Filipino-American War.
The Schurman Commission interviewed Filipino landlords, money-lenders, and businessmen in Manila without trying to learn the views of the Filipinos who were resisting the Americans.
The Commission deemed that the Americans' victory at Malolos on March 31, 1899 was more or less decisive; the time was opportune to issue a proclamation to the Filipino people. It would explain the true objectives of the United States in acquiring the Philippines.
On April 4, 1899, the proclamation was posted in the streets of Manila, printed in English, Spanish and Tagalog. It was also distributed in the outlying towns as far as Malolos.
The proclamation read in part:
"The commission desires to assure the people of the Philippine islands of the cordial good will and fraternal feeling which is entertained for them by the President of the United States and by the American people. The aim and object of the American government...is the well-being, prosperity, and happiness of the Philippine people and their elevation and advancement to a position among the most civilized peoples of the world...this felicity and perfection...is to be brought about by the assurance of peace and order...guarantee of civil and religious liberty...establishment of justice...cultivation of letters, science and the liberal and practical arts...development...with the aid of modern mechanical inventions, of the great natural resources of the archipelago...Unfortunately these pure aims and purposes of the American government and people have been misinterpreted to some of the inhabitants...as a consequence the friendly American forces have without provocation or cause been openly attacked...the supremacy of the United States must and will be enforced...those who resist it can accomplish no end other than their own ruin."
On April 29, 1899 Apolinario Mabini, the head of President Emilio Aguinaldo's cabinet, sent a message to the Commission asking for a three-month cease-fire in order to learn Filipino public opinion, but the Americans rejected his offer.
April 9-12, 1899: Lawton's Lake Laguna de Bay Expedition
Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton in field uniform in the Philippines, 1899. The white helmet was worn by General Lawton in all of his Cuban and Philippine engagements.
After the capture of Malolos, the U.S. 2nd Division under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton was sent by Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis to the south into Laguna province, via Lake Laguna de Bay, to take the Filipino stronghold located in Santa Cruz, 48 miles (80 km) from Manila. The Filipinos were commanded by Gen. Juan Cailles.
US troops boarding cascos on the Pasig River at San Pedro de Macati
On April 8, 1899, at 5:15 p.m., Lawton's division, numbering 1,509 men, boarded 8 launches, 17 cascos and 2 bancas on the Pasig River at San Pedro de Macati, east of Manila, and sailed towards Lake Laguna de Bay. ["Bay" is pronounced "BAH-EE"].
Cascos, with soldiers for General Henry W. Lawton's Laguna Campaign, being towed by the gunboat Laguna de Bay across Lake Laguna de Bay to Santa Cruz
On April 9 at 10:30 a.m., landing craft began offloading Lawton's troops south of Santa Cruz. Darkness fell before all the troops could be landed, and a minor skirmish broke out to the Americans' right.
Early on April 10, General Lawton went ashore and cut the telegraph line into Santa Cruz, thus severing the Filipinos' connection with Aguinaldo in the north. At the approach to a bridge just outside of the town, which was heavily guarded by the Filipinos, Lawton ordered a charge and a battalion of the 14th US Regular Infantry Regiment supported by 1st Idaho and 1st Washington volunteers routed the local force.
In the meantime, dismounted Troops C and L of the 4th U.S. Cavalry Regiment, which had not gone ashore the night before were landing under fire just north of the town. (Lawton served in the 4th Cavalry as a 1st Lieutenant and Captain from 1871 to 1888 and had commanded Troop B during the capture of the Indian chief Geronimo).
4th Cavalry men resting in a banana grove. Photo taken in 1899, location not specified.
The 4th Cavalry drove off the Filipinos on the beach with supporting fire from the gunboats Laguna de Bay, Oeste and Napindan. That same day Lawton took control of Santa Cruz.
US soldiers look over dead and wounded Filipinos after Battle of Santa Cruz
The Americans suffered 1 dead and 6 men wounded at Santa Cruz, the Filipinos 96 killed with 41 taken prisoner.
An American soldier poses for a photo atop a carabao (water buffalo), the Filipino farmer's beast of burden, circa 1899-1900, location not specified.
A private in the 14th US Regular Infantry was gored by a carabao (water buffalo) but he survived; he held the bull by the hindfoot and held him until the rest of his squad got together and shot the animal.
Pagsanjan Gate. Photo taken in 1904.
General Cailles (RIGHT) and his men withdrew to Pagsanjan. On April 11, at 6:00 a.m., General Lawton began the expedition to capture Pagsanjan. A battalion of sharpshooters was sent ahead of the command as an advance guard, and as they came within 1.5 miles (2.5 km) of the town, they were fired upon by a small force of Filipinos from hastily built breatsworks blocking the road.
An artillery piece was brought up and fired two rounds into the breastworks, which were soon abandoned by most of the Filipinos. Some Filipinos remained in the breatsworks after the bombardment and were driven out as well after the sharpshooters gave the breastworks another heavy volley.
Pagsanjan was captured with no further resistance. The Americans suffered 5 wounded against 6-8 Filipinos killed.
Monument to Emilio Aguinaldo at Pagsanjan
In the town plaza of Pagsanjan was an old Spanish monument from which the people had taken the original inscriptions and put in their own inscriptions; one of these was to "E. Aguinaldo, el Libertador."
An American writer commented: "In this town there was an air of so much refinement and wealth that it seemed strange, that such intelligent folk should run off before a civilized army, as if it were the hosts of Timur." The US soldiers butchered chicken and geese abandoned by the fleeing townsfolk.
General Lawton's Laguna expedition resting by the way. Photo taken in April 1899
General Lawton's Laguna expedition resting by the way. Photo taken in April 1899
The next day, April 12, 1899, the Americans launched another expedition to capture the town of Paete.
About 220 men began the march at 2:45 that afternoon. After about an hour, the Americans spotted Filipino breast works 150 yards in front of them, manned by 50 or so Filipino fighters. Major John Fraine, commander of the Ist North Dakota Volunteers, sent a small squad consisting of one corporal and four privates to flank the Filipino positions.
Some Filipinos hiding in thick foliage flanking the road fired at close range on the small force, killing four.
The sole survivor, Private Thomas Sletteland (LEFT), managed to drive back the nearest group of Filipinos, who repeatedly tried to seize the rifles of his fallen comrades.
He was later awarded the Medal of Honor.
Flanking and frontal infantry assaults, artillery fire and scathing gatling gun fire from the gunboat Laguna de Baysucceeded in dislodging the Filipinos from their entrenchments.
1st North Dakota Volunteers in camp at Paete, Laguna Province. Photo was taken on April 13, 1899.
Lawton's command suffered 5 killed in capturing Paete; 15 Filipinos were kiled and wounded. The Laguna Campaign was over and deemed a success. During the entire campaign, the Americans suffered 7 killed and 21 wounded. They reported a total of 125 Filipinos killed and 40 captured. Sixty Chinese, who asked to be taken from Santa Cruz, were brought to Manila.
1st North Dakota Volunteers quartered in the old church at Paete, Laguna Province. Photo was taken on April 13, 1899.
The San Francisco Call, April 14, 1899, Page 1
Lawton did not have enough men to occupy Santa Cruz permanently. General Otis called Lawton’s expedition back, fearing they might be cut off. Otis also wanted Lawton’s force back for a pending operation to the north by Maj. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr.
Paete: US soldiers and young Filipino fruit vendors. Photo was taken on March 24, 1901.
Known as the "Brains of the Katipunan", Emilio Jacinto was born in Trozo, Tondo, Manila, on Dec 15,1875. He was the son of Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. He was fluent in both Spanish and Tagalog, but he spoke more in Spanish. He studied in the Universidad de Santo Tomas, but did not finish college and at 20 joined the Katipunan. Because he was very brilliant, he became the advisor on fiscal matters and secretary to Andres Bonifacio. He also edited and wrote for the Katipunan newspaper "Kalayaan"--Freedom in Tagalog. He wrote in the newspaper under the pen name Dimasilaw, and in theKatipunan he was called Pingkian. Emilio Jacinto was the author of the Kartilya ng Katipunan. After Andres Bonifacio's death, he continued fighting the Spaniards.
Majayjay Church and the town center in 1899
He contracted malaria and died at age 23 on April 16, 1899 in Majayjay, Laguna province. Later on, his bones were transferred to the Manila North Cemetery.
Americans Advance To San Fernando, April 22-May 5, 1899
Soon after he captured Malolos on March 31, 1899 (ABOVE), Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr., was eager to proceed northward at once along the line of the railroad to Tarlac Province in pursuit of Aguinaldo, who, he felt sure, was making his retreat in that direction. In reply to his request to be allowed to do so, Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis said:
"Aguinaldo will never retreat in province of Tarlac. If forced strenuously he will retire along the edge of the province of Bulacan into Nueva Ecija, where Tagalos inhabit. This for political reasons... Was informed several days ago that insurgents would retire on Baliuag, which is the intersection of several important roads connecting with nearly all the Tagalog country north of Manila."
Indeed, President Emilio Aguinaldo moved his capital to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija Province, 65 miles (104 km) north of Manila.
Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk, Virginia, issue of May 6, 1899, Page 1
Believing that a combined movement which should result in the hemming in of the Filipinos would be more advisable than a pursuit, General Otis detained General MacArthur at Malolos, until communications between that town and Manila should be perfected, and until Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton could be sent north to protect his eastern flank and aid in surrounding the Filipino forces.
Malolos church used as headquarters by the US army, 1899
On April 22, after three weeks of cooling off at Malolos, MacArthur was allowed to advance to the north; the objective was San Fernando, Pampanga Province. Wheaton came up on the left, and Hale's brigade moved along the center. On the same day, Lawton's division started to sweep the country to the right, with San Isidro, Nueva Ecija Province, as objective. The plan called for MacArthur and Lawton to meet up at San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan Province; the combined columns would then proceed to crush the Filipinos at San Isidro. All the forces were retarded by the extreme heat, rains, and bad roads.
The first important fighting of MacArthur's northward movement was at Quingua (now Plaridel), Bulacan Province, on April 23. It was a two-part battle.
The first phase was a brief victory for the young Filipino general Gregorio del Pilar over the American Cavalry led by Major (later Maj. Gen.) James Franklin Bell, West Point class 1878, where Bell's advance was stopped.
But in the second phase, Bell was reinforced by the 1st Nebraskan Infantry and the Nebraskans routed the Filipinos, but not before they repelled a cavalry charge that killed Colonel John M. Stotsenburg.
Scouts commanded by Major James Franklin Bell. Photo was taken in 1899, somewhere in Central Luzon.
The battle began when Bell (LEFT, 1899 photo) and his men, while on a scouting mission, were attacked by a strong force of about 700-1,000 Filipinos led by General Gregorio del Pilar.
The Americans were forced to withdraw to a defensive position. Swarms of Filipino troops began to attack from different directions.
Bell saw that he was in a badly exposed position, and if he did not receive help soon his force risked being captured or killed.
1st Nebraska Volunteers crossing a river during their advance against the Filipinos at Quingua
Bell sent for reinforcements, and the 1st Nebraskans came to his aid under Colonel Stotsenburg.
Col. John M. Stotsenburg (2nd from left) and some staff officers of the 1st Nebraska Volunteer Infantry Regiment. Photo was taken at his field headquarters in March 1899.
Col. John M. Stotsenburg in the field. Photo was taken shortly before he was killed.
Once he entered the field, Stotsenburg ordered a charge, and the Nebraskan Infantry—Stotsenburg at their lead with a dozen or so cavalrymen—rushed the Filipinos' position. Stotsenberg, taking into account that the Filipinos previously had displayed poor marksmanship, perceived that a charge from such a force would dislodge and route them, which on most occasions, had been done before rather easily.
Instead, the Filipinos held their ground and opened a heavy accurate fire into the charging cavalrymen. Stotsenberg fell, along with 6 of his men.
Several of the cavalrymen's mounts were also slain. The Filipinos sustained the heavy fire, forcing the cavalry to retreat.
The Nebraskan infantry advanced under withering fire. Soon the two forces clashed in close range combat. After a stiff fight in which both sides suffered heavy casualties, the Filipinos were driven into their secondary defenses.
Brig. Gen. Irving Hale (LEFT) ordered an artillery bombardment on the Filipinos' secondary defensive lines. Two artillery pieces were brought up, which fired 20 shots into the Filipino positions. The powerful artillery barrage forced the Filipinos to retreat.
Casualties: 15 Americans killed, 43 wounded; 100 Filipinos killed and wounded.
In 1902, a large US military reservation, Fort Stotsenburg, was created in Pampanga Province and named in honor of Colonel Stotsenburg. It was originally set up as a facility for various US Army Cavalry units. In 1919, a US Army air force base, Clark Field, was carved out of Fort Stotsenberg. [The US Air Force became a separate branch of service only in 1947.]
In 1949, the two military facilities were combined and renamed Clark Air Base. It was the largest overseas U.S. military base in the world, with 156,204 acres (63,214 hectares). It played a major role during the Cold War, but was closed following extensive damage from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption on June 15, 1991. On November 27, 1991, the United States turned over Clark Air Base to the Philippine government.
Men of Company D, 3rd US Infantry Regiment, at captured Filipino breastworks that commanded the main entrance to Quingua (now Plaridel), Bulacan Province
Guardhouse of the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment at Quingua (now Plaridel), Bulacan Province
Issue of April 25, 1899
Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr. pushed 5 miles (8 km) farther north of Malolos to Calumpit, where he faced the forces of Gen. Antonio Luna--commander-in-chief of all Filipino forces--and Gen. Gregorio del Pilar.
April 24, 1899: Thirty-eight Filipinos were found dead in this trench near Pulilan, Bulacan Province
Filipino soldiers behind their trenches; photo taken in 1899, probably in Calumpit
Luna ignored Aguinaldo's orders to retreat and burn the railway bridge spanning the Bagbag River at Calumpit. Worst, when the Americans were about to attack, Luna, together with his foot soldiers, cavalry, and artillery left Calumpit to punish General Tomas Mascardo for his insubordination. Mascardo was then in Guagua, Pampanga Province and dillydallied in obeying Luna's order to send reinforcements. Mediators managed to avert a violent confrontation between the two generals.
Bagbag River railway bridge thrown down by Gen. Gregorio del Pilar. The US Army engineers corps built steps for the troops to cross and assault the Filipinos beyond.
During April 23-24, General del Pilar was left to fight the Americans; he threw down a section of the railway bridge. He actually planned to wreck the American artillery transport train; his men cut the girders of the iron bridge, intending to have the structure fall with the train, but it collapsed prematurely of its own weight. The US troops advanced to the edge of the river, a hundred yards beyond which the Filipinos were entrrenched.
The 20th Kansas Volunteers were on the right side of the road and the Utah Volunteer Light Artillery and the 1st Montana Volunteers on the left. In the center was an armored train mounted with six pounders and rapid fire guns.
Chinese porters employed by the US Army in its Central Luzon campaign
The train was pushed by Chinese porters to the mouth of the bridge and a vigorous response was made to the fire of the Filipinos. Col. Frederick Funston, along with 6 men, crawled across the ironwork of the bridge under heavy fire. When they reached the broken span, they dropped into the water and swam ashore.
Fallen Filipinos in a trench on the north bank of the Bagbag River
Upon reaching the bank, they charged the trenches with wild western yells and killed 25 Filipinos.
On April 25, at nightfall, Luna and his soldiers came back. But it was too late; the Americans had already broken through the Filipinos' defenses.
The Americans promptly repaired the Bagbag railway bridge they coveted for their supply trains.
Americans bring in artillery across the Bagbag River after the battle for the railroad bridge
51st Iowa Volunteers fording the Bagbag River after the battle.
Col. Frederick Funston and some of his men rafting across the Rio Grande de Pampangaafter the battle of Calumpit
On April 27, 1899, Col. Frederick Funston directed his men across the other river in Calumpit, the 400-foot wide (122 m) Rio Grande de Pampanga, by establishing a rope ferry and towing rafts on the tied ropes. The bridge had been stripped by the Filipinos and the river was too deep to ford. With 120 Kansas men, Funston went to a point several hundred yards from the bridge where 2 privates swam with a rope to the opposite shore where they attached the ropes to a portion of the Filipino trench, under vigorous covering fire. The rope was then attached to 3 rafts loaded with 50 men and drawn to shore under heavy fire. Funston was on the first raft to cross the river to confront the Filipinos on the other side.
The Americans attacked the left flank of the Filipinos who scuttled into covered ways and trenches. The rest of the Kansans and Montanans crossed the bridge in single file along the stringers. All the woodwork and much of the iron work had been removed. The 1st Nebraska Volunteers, acting as reserves,.attacked the Filipinos in three lines of entrenchments, driving them out.
The New York Times reported:
"In the meantime, a large body of Filipinos, estimated at no fewer than 3,000, led by Gen. Antonio Luna on a black charger, appeared in the open field about two miles to the left, evidently coming to reinforce the rebels who were engaged with the Nebraskans. Emerging from the jungle, the enemy formed an open skirmish line, nearly two miles in length, with very thick reserves behind. They then advanced at double quick, until they were about 2,000 yards from the American line, when Gen. Wheaton ordered his troops to fire. The rebels, who were evidently unaware that the Americans had crossed the river, broke and ran in the direction of Macabebe. The other Filipinos fled toward Apalit station."
1899: US engineers ferry artillery across a river, possibly the Rio Grande de Pampanga
Macabebes from Pampanga Province coming into American lines at Calumpit to offer their services as soldiers.
For his actions at Calumpit, Funston was rewarded with a promotion and along with 1Lt William Trembley and Cpl Edward White, earned the Medal of Honor.
"MEDAL OF HONOR CITATION
The San Francisco Call, April 29, 1899
When the Americans were about to assault Calumpit, Antonio Luna ordered reinforcements from Gen. Tomas Mascardo in Guagua, Pampanga but the latter carried out the order tardily and grudgingly. Luna was further peeved upon learning that Mascardo had left Guagua to visit a girl friend in Arayat, despite the imminent American offensive. Mascardo later insisted that he had gone there to inspect his soldiers. Mascardo had long wanted to resign as field commander to avoid any conflict with Luna, his superior, whom he bested in a suit for the hand of a beauteous Pampanga girl. Mascardo, the more handsome and dashing of the two generals, had run off with the girl. This made Luna furious. Hence Luna was said to be overly assertive of his seniority over Mascardo. Luna ordered Mascardo's 12-hour arrest. Mascardo responded that if Gen. Luna had enough guts to enforce his decree, he in turn had enough to resist him. Incensed, Gen. Luna wired Pampanga Governor Tiburcio Hilario to prepare for his arrival. Governor Hilario met Gen. Luna first and pleaded with him to restore peace and unity at a crucial moment in the history of the nation.
A bevy of beauties led by Nicolasa Pamintuan Dayrit and Pampanga's Red Cross President, Praxedes Fajardo, brought flowers and knelt before General Luna on the steps of the Bacolor convent, to dissuade the fiery General from violently confronting Gen. Mascardo. Governor Hilario sent three emissaries to convince Gen. Mascardo to submit himself to Luna's authority. Mascardo appeared in Betis to inform Gen. Luna that he was willing to follow the latter's orders. But by then, it was too late to save Calumpit from the advancing Americans.
Nicolasa Dayrit was born in San Fernando, Pampanga, on Sept. 10, 1874 . She was one of the well-educated women of her time, fluent in Spanish and an accomplished pianist. She helped minister to sick and wounded Filipino soldiers. She married Dr. Vicente Panlilio, a graduate of a medical school in Spain. During the Japanese occupation, the Panlilios moved to Manila but during the battle to liberate the capital, Dr. Panlilio was lost, never to be seen again. Doña Nicolasa became despondent and died of heart attack, on April 12, 1945 at the age of 71.
The church and convent at Santo Tomas, Pampanga Province. The church was built in 1767. Photo was taken in the 1990's.
May 4, 1899: 1st Nebraska Volunteers advancing on Santo Tomas, Pampanga Province
Brig. Gen. Loyd Wheaton's 1st Brigade (1st Montana and 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry Regiments) and Brig. Gen. Irving Hale's 2nd Brigade (1st Nebraska, 1st South Dakota and 51st Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiments) drove the Filipinos led by Gen. Antonio Luna (LEFT) out of Santo Tomas, Pampanga Province, on the night of May 4, 1899.
The Americans suffered two dead. Filipino casualties were not reported.
General Luna was wounded in the battle. On May 12, 1899, he turned over his Angeles-Magalang Line Command to General Venancio Concepcion while he recuperated in Bayambang, Pangasinan Province.
Company E, 9th US Infantry Regiment, guarding the railway bridge at Santo Tomas, Pampanga Province. PHOTO was taken in 1899.
A daily newspaper in Guthrie, Oklahoma, issue of May 5, 1899
The Seattle Star, issue of May 5, 1899
Filipinos KIA at San Fernando
Ruins of the church and convent at San Fernando
Brig. Gen. Irving Hale led two battalions of the 51st Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment and assaulted San Fernando, Pampanga Province. The Filipinos put up little resistance but before retreating, they burned the railroad station, the church and several buildings in its vicinity. A number of warehouses containing a large quantity of sugar were found.
Several Spanish prisoners were liberated. They stated that from 1,200 to 1,500 Filipino soldiers had passed through to the north on the previous afternoon, May 4, 1899, after the fight of Santo Tomas, and that Gen. Antonio Luna was wounded on the arm or chest, and was carried on a couch.
Original caption: "Execution of Phillopino Insurrecto Captain by the 3rd Inf, Co's B and D at San Fernando, Pampanga, P.I."
Associated Press correspondent's headquarters at San Fernando. PHOTO was taken in 1899.
51st Iowa Volunteers at breakfast in San Fernando. PHOTO was taken in 1899.
20th Kansas Volunteers lining up for dinner at San Fernando. PHOTO was taken in May 1899.
US troops at San Fernando
American officers' quarters at San Fernando
US army advance post near San Fernando
US cavalry camped at San Fernando
22nd Infantry troops leaving San Fernando for the front
Americans Advance To San Isidro, April 22-May 17, 1899
Company H, 22nd US Infantry Regiment, in the trenches of the south lines of Manila, April 15, 1899. A week later, the unit was attached to Lawton's expedition to capture San Isidro.
As soon as General Lawton returned to Manila from his Laguna expedition on April 17, General Otis ordered the second concerted move northward. This time General Lawton was to proceed northward to the east of General MacArthur's column, forming a junction with MacArthur's troops at San Miguel de Mayumo in Bulacan Province, to the north of the main Filipino forces, when an attack could be made on all sides at once. From there, they would move on to San Isidro. [MAP: RED DOTS MARK LAWTON'SSTOPS, BLUE MACARTHUR'S]
On April 22, Lawton’s expedition left La Loma, near Manila, on the same day that MacArthur took up the advance northward from Malolos up the Manila-Dagupan railroad.
Lawton's first objective was to join the 2nd Oregon Volunteers in the town of Norzagaray, Bulacan Province, 25 miles (40 km) from Manila. Little resistance was met along the way, but the difficult terrain and inaccurate Spanish maps bogged them down. The roads marked on the maps were mere trails or did not exist. It took them four days to meet the 2nd Oregon.
General Lawton's "Bull Train" with provisions halted on the road for rest, 1899
Throughout the next several days as Lawton’s expedition moved toward San Miguel de Mayumo, they would run into the occasional skirmish, but the Filipinos would quickly retreat. Terrain turned out to be the most formidable enemy. With the lack of good roads, General Otis was concerned about command and control. Rivers, swamps, heat, and sickness bogged down MacArthur's 2nd Division to the west.
Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton is shown here observing the American advance on Baliuag, Bulacan Province, May 2, 1899.
On May 2, Lawton drove the Filipinos out of Baliuag, Bulacan Province. He was ordered to halt there, since Otis heard rumors of a Filipino army moving on his right flank.
Church at Baliuag used for quarters by Lawton's expedition. Photo taken in May 1899.
Although Lawton requested to move onward to San Miguel de Mayumo, noting the lack of "effective resistance", he was to remain at Baliuag until May 15.
The Church of San Agustin and plaza at Baliuag. Photo was taken in 1897.
On May 6, he gave verbal permission to the residents of Baliuag to hold a meeting in the plaza, for the purpose of electing a Capitan Municipal, or mayor, to administer the civil affairs of the town and represent its interest in connection with the American forces occupying it. The result of this election was announced in the following orders, which were published in English, Spanish, and Tagalog:
This was the first election held in the Philippines under American supervision.
Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton and staff resting at his headquarters in Baliuag, Bulacan Province, May 1899.
While at Baliuag, Lawton asked William H. Young, a civilian adventurer from Connecticut, and his detachment of 25 “specially qualified enlisted men”, known as Young's Scouts, to reconnoiter the country around San Miguel de Mayumo and San Ildefonso (also in Bulacan Province). These towns controlled the approaches to San Isidro. Sixteen of the scouts were from the 1st North Dakota Volunteer Infantry, 6 from the 2nd Oregon Volunteers and 3 from the 4th U.S. Cavalry.
The original Young's Scouts (26 men) at Baliuag, Bulacan Province, on May 11,1899.
On May 12, Young's Scouts reconnoitered the town of San Ildefonso. They dislodged about 30 Filipinos from their outpost on a hill. When the Filipinos discovered the small force opposing them, they attempted to retake the hill. The arrival of American reinforcements forced them to withdraw north toward San Miguel de Mayumo. Twenty-five Filipinos were killed, including a captain and a lieutenant.
On May 13, Young's Scouts moved on to San Miguel de Mayumo for reconnaissance. They approached a Filipino trench line defending a bridge over the river leading to the town. When the scouts were spotted, they decided to rush the trench. The Filipinos retreated to the town with the scouts in hot pursuit. A battle ensued for four hours until an American relief forced the Filipinos to fall back. William H. Young was wounded, but he died three days later. Filipino casualties were unknown.
US infantry and Battery D, 6th Artillery, on outpost duty near San Fernando, Pampanga Province, 1899
MacArthur’s 2nd Division (4,800 men) got as far north as San Fernando in Pampanga Province, about 45 miles (72 km) north of Manila on the main railway line. However, it was unable to meet Lawton at San Miguel de Mayumo; nearly half of the troops were sick or worn out and needed to recuperate. MacArthur also reported that General Antonio Luna was in his immediate front with 2,500 men, and had 1,000 more about five miles (8 km) northeast of San Fernando. Between San Fernando and Baliuag where Lawton was stationed MacArthur thought there were some 10,000 Filipino soldiers. Otis could not spare any fresh troops to relieve or reinforce the 2nd Division; therefore, he directed MacArthur to hold on to San Fernando with what force he had, operating against and holding Luna as best he could.
At any rate, Otis permitted Lawton to advance on San Isidro.
Company B, 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 1899
To start off, Lawton assigned 2nd Lt. James E. Thornton of Company B, 2nd Oregon Volunteers, as new chief scout, in place of the fallen William H. Young.
Young's Scouts, now commanded by 2nd Lt. James E. Thornton (at far right)
Lawton's staff relaxing at their headquarters in Baliuag, Bulacan Province, May 1899.
On May 16, from Baliuag, Lawton ordered Thornton to try and locate Filipinos blocking the road to San Isidro. As the 23 scouts approached a wooden bridge on the Cabon River about 3 miles (5 km) south of San Isidro, they discovered a Filipino entrenchment on the opposite side. When the Filipinos spotted the scouts, they set fire to the bridge. Trying to save the bridge, Thornton and two scouts ran across the burning bridge. The other 20 scouts waded across the river while steadily firing on the Filipinos. The Filipinos took off and the bridge was saved. A scout, Pvt. James Harrington, and 6 Filipinos were killed.
Young's Scouts at Manila. Photo was taken in late May 1899.
For their actions on May 13 and 16, Medals of Honor were awarded to 13 members of the Young's Scouts.
Colonel (later General) Owen Summers, CO of the 2nd Oregon Volunteer Infantry Regiment, at Baliuag, May 1899.
Lawton ordered Colonel Owen Summers, commander of the 2nd Oregon Volunteers, to lead a provisional brigade and capture San Isidro.
Scott's Battery on the way to San Isidro, May 1899.
The brigade consisted of a 3-gun section (Scott's Battery) of Utah Light Artillery Battery B, Troop I of the 4th Cavalry, elements of the 22nd, 1st North Dakota, and 2nd Oregon infantry regiments, and Young's Scouts.
On May 17, at about 4 o'clock A. M., Colonel Summers (RIGHT) and his column left San Miguel de Mayumo, arriving at 6 A. M. just north of the bridge to San Isidro.
The Americans advanced toward the town, and when within about 1,800 yards of it, the Filipinos, estimated to number 2,000, opened fire. The Filipinos withdrew when the Americans turned their right flank.
The advance was continued and San Isidro was occupied by the Americans. Two Americans were wounded; 15 Filipinos were killed and 3 captured.
Contemporary photo of house used as headquarters by Emilio Aguinaldo at San Isidro. The owner was Crispulo Sideco, also known as "Kapitang Pulong". It is now occupied by a Christian organization. [Photo taken on March 11, 2010 by Shubert Ciencia].
Several Spaniards who claimed to have been held prisoners by the Filipinos were found in the town, among them 3 officers, who were later returned to Manila.
President Aguinaldo (LEFT) withdrew to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija Province, 18 miles (30 km) to the north.
After the capture of San Isidro, President McKinley sent the following dispatch to Major-General Otis:
"Convey to General Lawton and the gallant men of his command congratulations on the successful operations during the past month, resulting in the capture this morning of San Isidro."
Filipinos captured by General Lawton amusing themselves at Fort Santiago, Manila, 1899.
After San Isidro fell, Lawton was eager to press ontoTarlac. On May 17th, he wired headquarters that his provisions could be made to hold out until the 30th. He was well supplied with ammunition. Nevertheless he was ordered to fall back.
The Times, Washington, D.C., May 19, 1899
In the interim, an arrangement was made for the entry of a Filipino Peace Commission; it was composed of Gen. Gregorlo del Pllar, Capt. Lorenzo Zialcita, Alberto Barretto and Gracio Gonzaga, who desired to go to Manila for a conference with the Schurman Commission and with a view to the termination of hostilities. They came within the American lines on May 18th, and the next morning started for Manila, accompanied by 2Lt. Edward L. King of the 8th Cavalry.
As soon as Lawton began a retrograde movement, the scattered Filipino forces reassembled and attacked his columns as they withdrew through Cabiao, Arayat, and Candaba. A permanent garrison was left at Baliuag. The proximity of the rainy season had been cited as a reason for the abandonment of the forward movement.
General Otis knew that rains made the muddy roads virtually impassable for re-supply wagons. He feared that Lawton might get isolated and his forces cut to pieces by the surrounding Filipinos.
May 22-23, 1899: Filipinos negotiate with the Schurman Commission
With the Philippine army unable to contain the American offensive, President Emilio Aguinaldo created a peace commission to negotiate an armistice. He appointed 23-year-old General Gregorio del Pilar to head the Filipino panel, with Captain Lorenzo Zialcita, Alberto Barretto and Gracio Gonzaga as members.
May 22-23, 1899: The Filipinos conferred with the U.S. First Philippine Commission, also known as the Schurman Commission, at the house occupied by the Americans at Malate district, Manila.
The Philippine government was represented by, left to right: Captain Lorenzo Zialcita, Alberto Barretto, General Gregorio del Pilar, and Gracio Gonzaga. [Captain Zialcita, who had taken a business course in Hong Kong, spoke English; General Del Pilar was killed in action at Tirad Pass, Concepcion, Ilocos Sur Province on Dec. 2, 1899].
The members of the Schurman Commission, left to right: Jacob Schurman (Chairman), Charles Denby, Dean C. Worcester, and John MacArthur (Secretary).
The armistice sought by the Filipinos was rejected. The American panel insisted on the recognition of United States sovereignty which the Filipinos understood to mean the unconditional surrender of the Filipino army.
Ten days later, on June 2, Pedro Paterno, the head of Aguinaldo's cabinet, issued a manifesto recognizing the futility of the peace efforts with the Americans and exhorted all Filipinos to continue the struggle: "To war, then, beloved brothers, to war."
House occupied by the US First Philippine Commission (aka Schurman Commission) at Malate district, Manila. Photo was taken in 1900.
Living room of the house occupied by the US First Philippine Commission
The War in 1900-1901: African Americans in the Fil-Am War
Companies from the segregated Black 24th and 25th infantry regiments reported to the Presidio of San Francisco in early 1899. They arrived in the Philippines on July 30 and Aug. 1, 1899. The 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments were sent to the Philippines as reinforcements, and by late summer of 1899, all four regular Black regiments plus Black national guardsmen had been brought into the war against the Filipino "Insurectos." The two Black volunteer infantry regiments -- 49th and 48th -- arrived in Manila on January 2 and 25, 1900, respectively.
African American soldiers of Troop E, 9th Cavalry Regiment before shipping out to the Philippines in 1900. Up to 7,000 Blacks saw action in the Philippines.
African American soldiers of Troop C, 9th Cavalry Regiment, at Camp Lawton, Washington State, before shipping out to the Philippines in 1900
9th Cavalry soldiers on foot, somewhere in Luzon Island.
The U.S. Army viewed its "Buffalo soldiers" as having an extra advantage in fighting in tropical locations. There was an unfounded belief that African-Americans were immune to tropical diseases. Based on this belief the U.S. congress authorized the raising of ten regiments of "persons possessing immunity to tropical diseases." These regiments would later be called "Immune Regiments".
Many Black newspaper articles and leaders supported Filipino independence and felt that it was wrong for the US to subjugate non-whites in the development of a colonial empire. Some Black soldiers expressed their conscientious objection to Black newspapers. Pvt. William Fulbright saw the U.S. conducting "a gigantic scheme of robbery and oppression." Trooper Robert L. Campbell insisted "these people are right and we are wrong and terribly wrong" and said he would not serve as a soldier because no man "who has any humanity about him at all would desire to fight against such a cause as this." Black Bishop Henry M. Turner characterized the venture in the Philippines as "an unholy war of conquest".
African American soldiers during the Philippine-American War in undated photo.
Many Black soldiers increasingly felt they were being used in an unjust racial war. One Black private wrote that “the white man’s prejudice followed the Negro to the Philippines, ten thousand miles from where it originated.”
The Filipinos subjected Black soldiers to psychological warfare. Posters and leaflets addressed to "The Colored American Soldier" described the lynching and discrimination against Blacks in the US and discouraged them from being the instrument of their white masters' ambitions to oppress another "people of color." Blacks who deserted to the Filipino nationalist cause would be welcomed.
One soldier related a conversation with a young Filipino boy: “Why does the American Negro come to fight us where we are a friend to him and have not done anything to him. He is all the same as me and me the same as you. Why don’t you fight those people in America who burn Negroes, that make a beast of you?”
The Black 24th Infantry Regiment marching in Manila. Photo taken in 1900.
One of the Black deserters, Private David Fagen of the 24th Infantry, born in Tampa, Florida in 1875, became notorious as "Insurecto Captain". On Nov. 17, 1899, Fagen, assisted by a Filipino officer who had a horse waiting for him near the company barracks, slipped into the jungle and headed for the Filipinos' sanctuary at Mount Arayat. The New York Times described him as a “cunning and highly skilled guerilla officer who harassed and evaded large conventional American units.” From August 30, 1900 to January 17, 1901, he battled eight times with American troops.
Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston put a $600 price on Fagen's head and passed word the deserter was "entitled to the same treatment as a mad dog." Posters of him in Tagalog and Spanish appeared in every Nueva Ecija town, but he continued to elude capture.
Hunters with indigenous Aetas, circa 1898-1899
On Dec. 5, 1901, Anastacio Bartolome, a Tagalog hunter, delivered to American authorities the severed head of a “negro” he claimed to be Fagen. While traveling with his hunting party, Bartolome reported that he had spied upon Fagen and his Filipina wife accompanied by a group of indigenous people called Aetas bathing in a river.
The hunters attacked the group and allegedly killed and beheaded Fagen, then buried his body near the river. But this story has never been confirmed and there is no record of Bartolome receiving a reward. Official army records of the incident refer to it as the “supposed killing of David Fagen,” and several months later, Philippine Constabulary reports still made references to occasional sightings of Fagen.
The Indianapolis Freeman, issue dated Oct. 14, 1899, features Edward Lee Baker, Jr., an African-American US Army Sergeant Major, awarded the Medal of Honor for actions in Cuba. Founded in 1888 by Edward C. Cooper, it was the first Black national illustrated newspaper in the US.The article at right, included in this issue although datelined Aug. 18, 1899, describes the movements of the 24th Infantry Regiment while campaigning in the Philippines.
A Black newspaper, the Indianapolis Freeman, editorialized in December, 1901, "Fagen was a traitor and died a traitor's death, but he was a man no doubt prompted by honest motives to help a weakened side, and one he felt allied by bonds that bind."
During the war, 20 U.S. soldiers, 6 of them Black, would defect to Aquinaldo. Two of the deserters, both Black, were hanged by the US Army. They were Privates Lewis Russell and Edmond Dubose, both of the 9th Cavalry, who were executed before a crowd of 3,000 in Albay Province.
Black and white American soldiers with Signal Corps flag
Nevertheless, it was also felt by most African Americans that a good military showing by Black troops in the Philippines would reflect favorably and enhance their cause in the US.
The sentiments of most Black soldiers in the Philippines would be summed up by Commissary Sergeant Middleton W. Saddler of the 25th Infantry, who wrote, "We are now arrayed to meet a common foe, men of our own hue and color. Whether it is right to reduce these people to submission is not a question for soldiers to decide. Our oaths of allegiance know neither race, color, nor nation."
Although most Blacks were distressed by the color line that had been immediately established in the Philippines and by the epithet "niggers", which white soldiers applied to Filipinos, they joined whites in calling them "gugus". A black lieutenant of the 25th Infantry wrote his wife that he had occasionally subjected Filipinos to the water torture.
Capt. William H. Jackson of the 49th Infantry admitted his men identified racially with the Filipinos but grimly noted "all enemies of the U.S. government look alike to us, hence we go on with the killing."
The Black 24th Infantry Regiment drilling at Camp Walker, Cebu Island. Photo was taken in 1902.
Photo taken in 1900
On Jan. 7, 1900, the 28th Infantry Regiment of US Volunteers, commanded by Col. William E. Birkhimer, engaged a large body of Filipinos at Imus, Cavite Province.
Original caption: "Filipinos firing on the American out-posts, P.I." Photo was taken in 1900, location not specified.
Original caption: "The rude ending of delusion's dream ---Insurgent on the Battlefield of Imus, Philippines."
Four soldiers of Company M, 28th Infantry Regiment of US Volunteers. Photo was taken in 1900. The regiment arrived in the Philippines on Nov. 22 and 23, 1899. It was commanded by Col. William E. Birkhimer.
The Americans suffered 8 men wounded, and reported that 245 Filipinos were killed and wounded.
Licerio Topacio, Presidente Municipal (Mayor) of Imus, with two Filipino priests. PHOTO was taken in 1899.
US artillery supporting the infantry. Photo taken in 1900, location not specified
On Jan. 14-15, 1900, the only artillery duel of the war was fought in Mount Bimmuaya, a summit 1,000 meters above the Cabugao River, northwest of Cabugao, Ilocos Sur Province. It is a place with an unobstructed view of the coastal plain from Vigan to Laoag. The Americans -- from the 33rd Infantry Regiment USV, and the 3rd US Cavalry Regiment -- also employed Gatling guns and prevailed mainly because their locations were concealed by their use of smokeless gunpowder so that Filipino aim was wide off the mark.
It was believed that General Manuel Tinio, and his officers Capt. Estanislao Reyes and Capt. Francisco Celedonio were present at this encounter but got away unscathed.
Elements of this same 33rd Infantry unit had killed General Gregorio del Pilar earlier on Dec. 2, 1899, at Tirad Pass, southeast of Candon, llocos Sur.
The Battle of Mt. Bimmuaya diverted and delayed US troops from their chase of President Emilio Aguinaldo as the latter escaped through Abra and the mountain provinces. After the two-day battle, 28 unidentified fighters from Cabugao were found buried in unmarked fresh graves in the camposanto (cemetery).
General Tinio switched to guerilla warfare and harassed the American garrisons in the different towns of the Ilocos for almost 1½ years.
In early 1900, during their successful operations in the northern half of Luzon Island, the Americans decided to open the large hemp ports situated in the southeastern Luzon provinces of Sorsogon, Albay and Camarines, all in the Bicol region.
Brig. Gen. William A. Kobbe (ABOVE, in 1900) was relieved from duty on the south Manila line and ordered to seize the desired points. His expeditionary force was composed of the 43rd and 47th Volunteer Infantry Regiments, and Battery G , 3rd Artillery. He sailed on the afternoon of January 18, with the transport Hancock and two coasting vessels, theCastellano and Venus. His command was convoyed by the gunboats Helena andNashviIlle.
On January 20, the Americans entered Sorsogon Bay and took possession, without opposition, of the town of Sorsogon, where Kobbe left a small garrison. They proceeded to the small hemp ports of Bulan and Donsol, at each of which a company of the 43rd Infantry was placed. The expedition then sailed through the San Bernardino Strait to confront the Filipinos at Albay Province.
The main street and cathedral in Legaspi, Albay Province. PHOTO was taken in 1899.
On January 23, at Legaspi, Albay, Generals Jose Ignacio Paua and Vito Belarmino (LEFT) put up a strong resistance against the 47th US Infantry but in the end had to retreat; 7 Americans were wounded, and 50 Filipinos killed and wounded.
On January 24, Virac, Catanduanes Island (then a part of Albay Province), was taken by the Americans without a shot being fired.
On February 8, Tabaco, Albay was captured and on February 23, Nueva Caceres (today's Naga City), Camarines fell.
Paua (RIGHT, in 1898) surrendered on March 27, 1900 in Legaspi to Col. Walter Howe, Commanding Officer of the 47th Infantry Regiment.
Paua was the only pure Chinese in the Philippine army.
He was born on April 29, 1872 in a poor village of Lao-na inFujian province, China.
In 1890, he accompanied his uncle to seek his fortune in the Philippines. He worked as a blacksmith on Jaboneros Street, Binondo, Manila.
Paua joined the Katipunan in 1896. His knowledge as blacksmith served him in good stead. He repaired native cannons called lantakas and many other kinds of weaponry. He set up an ammunition factory in Imus, Cavite where cartridges were filled up with home-made gunpowder. [On the side, he courted Antonia Jamir, Emilio Aguinaldo's cousin].
He also taught the Filipinos how to melt metals, including church bells, for the manufacture of arms and bullets. He raised money for the Philippine army, much of it from his fellow Chinese. Paua proved himself in battles against the Spanish at Binakayan, Zapote, Perez Dasmariñas, Salitran, Imus, among others.
On April 26, 1897, then-Major Paua, Col. Agapito Bonzon and their men attacked and arrested Katipunan Supremo Andres Bonifacio and his brother Procopio inbarrio Limbon, Indang, Cavite Province; Andres was shot in the left arm and his other brother, Ciriaco, was killed. Paua jumped and stabbed Andres in the left side of the neck. From Indang, a half-starved and wounded Bonifacio was carried by hammock to Naik, Cavite, which had become Emilio Aguinaldo’s headquarters. The Bonifacio brothers were executed on May 10, 1897.
Paua (LEFT) was the only foreigner who signed the 1897 Biyak-na-Bato Constitution. He was among 36 Filipino rebel leaders who went in exile to Hong Kong by virtue of the Dec. 14, 1897 Peace Pact of Biyak-na-bato.
Emilio Aguinaldo and the other exiles returned to Manila on May 19, 1898. The revolution against Spain entered its second phase.
On June 12, 1898, when Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence in Kawit, Cavite, Paua cut off his queue (braid). When General Pantaleon Garcia and his other comrades teased him about it, Paua said: "Now that you are free from your foreign master, I am also freed from my queue."
[The queue, for the Chinese, is a sign of humiliation and subjugation because it was imposed on them by the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty. The Chinese revolutionaries in China cut off their queues only in 1911 when they finally toppled the Manchu government.]
On Oct. 29, 1898, Paua was included in the force led by General Vito Belarmino that was sent to the Bicol region; Belarmino assumed the position of military commander of the provinces of Albay, Camarines and Sorsogon.
Paua married Carolina Imperial, a native of Albay; he retired in Albay and was once elected town mayor of Manito. He told his wife and children: “I want to live long enough to see the independence of our beloved country and to behold the Filipino flag fly proudly and alone in our skies.”
His dream was not realized because he died of cancer in Manila on May 24, 1926 at the age of 54.
A supply detail from Company G, 32nd Infantry Regiment U.S.V., is ambushed near Hermosa, Bataan Province. PHOTO was taken on Feb. 5, 1900. Source: Archives of the 32nd Infantry Regimental Association
On Feb. 5, 1900, a supply train of Company G, 32nd Infantry Regiment of U.S. Volunteers, was ambushed near Hermosa, Bataan Province. The 11-man detail was commanded by Sgt. Clarence D. Wallace. It was sent from Dinalupihan by the Company Commander, Capt. Frank M. Rumbold, to escort Capt. William H. Cook, regimental assistant surgeon, to Orani. On arrival, the soldiers would report to the commissary officer for rations, which they were to escort back to Dinalupihan. It was while on their return trip that the party was ambushed; 6 Americans were killed. It was one of the deadliest ambuscades of U.S. troops in the war.
Forty-eight hours before this occurrence, detachments of the 32nd Infantry Regiment scouted the country south of Orani, west to Bagac, north to Dinalupihan, and west to Olongapo, without finding any trace of Filipino guerillas. Following the ambush, all American units in the province were directed to exercise extraordinary vigilance on escort and similar duty.
32nd Infantry Regiment headquarters at Balanga, Bataan Province
The regiment, commanded by Col. Louis A. Craig, was based in Balanga, Bataan Province. It posted companies of troops in Abucay, Balanga, Dinalupihan, Mariveles, Orani and Orion, and the towns of Floridablanca and Porac in neighboring Pampanga Province.
Four doomed Filipinos --- in leg irons --- are photographed moments before their execution by hanging, circa 1900-1901
The Filipinos were hanged one at a time
American soldiers and sailors, and some Filipino civil officials pose for a "souvenir" photo with the coffins bearing the bodies of the executed men
SIMULTANEOUS HANGING OF FOUR FILIPINOS. Original caption: "The Philippine Islands. Hanging Insurgents at Cavite". Circa 1900.
The U.S. Army executes a Filipino, circa 1900.
Original caption: "Hanging at Caloocan, after the drop". Two Filipino doctors are checking the limp bodies for signs of life. Circa 1900.
Original caption: "American execution of Philippine insurrectionists." PHOTO was taken circa 1900-1901.
CLOSE-UP of preceding photo. The Americans are seen here placing the nooses around the two Filipinos' necks.
US "Bill" Battery outside of barracks in Tagbilaran, Bohol
On March 17, 1900, 200 troops of the 1st Battalion, 44th Infantry Regiment of U.S. Volunteers (USV), led by Maj. Harry C. Hale, arrived in Tagbilaran. Bohol was one of the last major islands in the Philippines to be invaded by American troops. Bernabe Reyes, "President" of the "Republic of Bohol" established on June 11, 1899, separate from Emilio Aguinaldo's national government, did not resist. Major Hale hired and outfitted Pedro Samson to build an insular police force. In late August, he took off and emerged a week later as the island's leading guerilla.
Soldiers of the 44th U.S. Volunteer Infantry Regiment at Tubigon, Bohol, 1900.
Company C of the 44th U.S. Volunteers encountered Samson on Aug. 31, 1900 near Carmen. The guerillas were armed with bolos, a few antique muskets and "anting-anting" or amulets. More than 100 guerillas died. The Americans lost only one man.
Chocolate Hills, Carmen, Bohol
Two hundred men from the 19th U.S. Regular Infantry Regiment led by Capt. Andrew S. Rowan, West Point Class 1881 (LEFT), reinforced the Americans on Bohol.
On Sept. 3, 1900, they clashed with Pedro Samson in the Chocolate Hills. From then on through December, US troops and guerillas met in a number of engagements in the island's interior, mostly in the mountains back of Carmen. Samson's force consisted of Boholanos, Warays from Samar and Leyte, and Ilonggos from Panay Island. They lacked firepower; most of them were armed simply with machetes.
The Americans resorted to torture --most often "water cure"--and a scorched-earth policy: prominent civilians were tortured; 20 of the 35 towns of Bohol were razed, and livestock was butchered wantonly to deprive the guerillas of food.
In May 1901, when a US soldier raped a Filipina, her fiance murdered him. In retaliation, Capt. Andrew S. Rowan torched the town of Jagna. On June 14-15, 1901, US troops clashed with Samson in the plain between Sevilla and Balilihan; Samson escaped, but Sevilla and Balilihan were burned to the ground.
Original caption: "Burning of native huts."
On Nov. 4, 1901, Brig. Gen. Robert Hughes, US commander for the Visayas, landed another 400 men at Loay. Torture and the burning of villages and towns picked up. (At US Senate hearings in 1902, when Brig. Gen. Robert Hughes described the burning of entire towns in Bohol by U.S. troops to Senator Joseph Rawlins as a means of "punishment," and Rawlins inquired: "But is that within the ordinary rules of civilized warfare?..." General Hughes replied succinctly: "These people are not civilized.")
American soldiers "water cure" a Filipino. Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, military governor of the "unpacified areas" of the Philippines, 1901-1902, ordered the US Army to "Obtain information from natives no matter what measures have to be adopted." Photo Source: Abraham Ignacio Collection, www.presidio.gov
At Inabanga, the Americans killed the mayor and water-cured to death the entire local police force. The mayor of Tagbilaran did not escape the water cure. At Loay, the Americans broke the arm of the parish priest and used whiskey, instead of water, when they gave him the "water cure". Major Edwin F. Glenn, who had personally approved the tortures, was later court-martialed.
Church in Dimiao, Bohol
On Dec. 23, 1901, at 3:00 pm, Pedro Samson signed an armistice in the convent of Dimiao town. He arrived with 175 guerillas. That night at an army-sponsored fete there were speeches and a dance.
On Feb. 3, 1902, the first American-sponsored elections were held on Bohol and Aniceto Clarin, a wealthy landowner and an American favorite, was voted governor. The Philippine Constabulary assumed the US army's responsibilities and the last American troops departed in May 1902.
BATTLE OF CAGAYAN DE MISAMIS, APRIL 7, 1900. When the Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War on Dec. 10, 1898, the Spanish governor of Misamis Province turned over his authority to two Filipinos appointed by Emilio Aguinaldo: Jose Roa, who became the first Filipino governor of Misamis; and Toribio Chavez, who served as the first Filipino mayor of Cagayan de Misamis (now Cagayan de Oro City). [On Nov. 2, 1929, Misamis Province was divided into Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental].
On Jan. 10-11, 1899, Cagayan de Misamis celebrated Philippine independence by holding a "Fiesta Nacional." The people held a parade and fired cannons outside the Casa Real (where the present city hall --- inaugurated on Aug. 26, 1940 ---stands). For the first time, the Philippine Flag was raised on Mindanao island.
On March 31, 1900, Companies A, C, D and M of the 40th Infantry Regiment of US Volunteers (USV) invaded Cagayan de Misamis. The regimental commander was Col. Edward A. Godwin. Prior to landing, the Americans bombarded Macabalan wharf, with the flagpole flying the Philippine Flag as the primary target. The wharf was about 5 kilometers distant from the town center.
Guard mount of the 40th Infantry Regiment, USV, at Cagayan de Misamis (now Cagayan de Oro City). Photo taken in 1900. The stone Church of San Agustin was built in 1845 but was destroyed in 1945 during World War II. It was rebuilt into a cathedral.
The Americans set up their barracks in the town center, just beside the present St. Agustine Cathedral.
On Friday, April 6, 1900, a newly formed guerilla force led by General Nicolas Capistrano descended 9 kilometers from their camp in Gango plateau in Libona, Bukidnon Province, Mindanao Island. Numbering several hundred, the guerillas planned to attack the Americans in their barracks.
At dawn of Saturday, April 7, 1900, the bells of San Agustin Church pealed; this was the signal for the guerillas to proceed with the attack. First to attack were the macheteros, who were armed only with bolos; they carried ladders which they used to scale the barracks where the Americans slept. They were followed by the riflemen and cavalrymen who, for the most part, were armed with old rifles.
American soldiers in Cagayan de Misamis, 1900
The noise roused the Americans; they grabbed their weapons and fired at their attackers from the windows of the barracks. Some American soldiers climbed the Church bell tower where they fired at the poorly armed guerillas. The fighting was centered at the town plaza, the present Gaston Park. The battle raged for an hour. The macheteros, who crashed the barracks, engaged the Americans in fierce hand-to-hand combat. Captain Apolinario Pabayo, an officer of the macheteros, was among the first to die. Themacheteros' leader, Captain Clemente Chacon, tried to climb up the Club Popular Building (the site is now occupied by the St. Agustine Maternity and General Hospital), but was repelled twice and had to scramble down due to a gaping head wound from an American bayonet.
"SIETE DE ABRIL": Centennial commemoration of the Battle of Cagayan de Misamis (now Cagayan de Oro City).
In his annual report for 1900, Maj. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr., listed 4 Americans killed and 9 wounded, and 52 Filipinos killed, 9 wounded and 10 captured. (A Filipino account reported that 200 Filipinos were killed). Later, one of the old streets in the city was named "Heroes de Cagayan" in honor of the Cagayan and Misamis guerillas who took part in the battle. It has since been renamed Pacana Street.
On July 14, 1900, the Americans at Cagayan de Misamis were reinforced by 170 men of the 23rd Infantry Regiment USV and 2 Maxim-Nordenfeldt guns (ABOVE).
Guardhouse of the 40th Infantry Regiment, U.S. Volunteers, in Cagayan de Misamis (now Cagayan de Oro City)
The band of the 40th Infantry Regiment, U.S. Volunteers, at Cagayan de Misamis (now Cagayan de Oro City), circa 1900-1901.
Americans playing baseball, circa 1900-1901
BATTLE OF AGUSAN HILL, MAY 14, 1900. Capt. Walter B. Elliott, CO of Company I, 40th Infantry Regiment USV, with 80 men proceeded to the village of Agusan, about 16 kilometers west of Cagayan de Misamis town proper, to dislodge about 500 guerillas who were entrenched on a hill with 200 rifles and shotguns. The attack was successful; 2 Americans were killed and 3 wounded; the Filipinos suffered 38 killed, including their commander, Capt. Vicente Roa. The Americans also captured 35 Remington rifles.
RUFINO DELOSO'S GUERILLA FORCE, MAY 14, 1900 - 1902. Rufino Deloso led a force of 400 guerillas in Misamis Province (in areas that are now in Misamis Occidental) and engaged the Americans in no less than 20 encounters. On March 7, 1902, he surrendered to Senior Inspector John W. Green of the Philippine Constabulary in Oroquieta, Misamis Province. He gave up with 20 riflemen and 250 bolo men.
Filipino guerillas killed in battle, Misamis Province, circa 1900-1901
Cartload of dead Filipino guerillas in Oroquieta, Misamis Province, circa 1900-1901
"CAPITAN" EUSTAQUIO DALIGDIG: Daligdig was a settler from Siquijor Island. He organized a rebel force against Spain, with the town of Daisog (now Lopez Jaena, Misamis Occidental) as his base of operations. "Capitan" Daligdig became a household name throughout Misamis Province; the common folk believed he possessed an "anting-anting" (amulet) that enabled him to fly and made his body impervious to bullets.
The guerilla leader in the Oroquieta-Laungan area led numerous assaults against the Oroquieta Garrison of the Americans. On Jan. 6, 1901, he was wounded at Manella, when 40 men of Companies I and E, 40th Infantry Regiment USV, attacked his encampment. Two of his men were killed and 24 captured, but Daligdig managed to escape through the thicket. Later, he availed himself of the general amnesty proclaimed by the US colonial administration on July 4, 1902. He changed his last name to "Sumili" to escape retribution from relatives of civilians he had executed for treason.
Filipino guerilla chief killed in action in Oroquieta, Misamis Province, circa 1900-1901
Medic attends to wounded American soldier in Misamis Province, circa 1900-1901
American troops fording a river in Misamis Province, circa 1900-1901
BATTLE OF MACAHAMBUS GORGE, JUNE 4, 1900. On Macahambus Gorge, located 14 kilometers south of Cagayan de Misamis (present-day Cagayan de Oro City), Mindanao Island, Filipino guerillas led by Col. Apolinar Velez routed an American force. It is the only known major victory of Filipinos over the Americans on Mindanao Island.
Capt. Thomas Millar, CO of Company H, Fortieth Infantry Regiment USV, led 100 men against the guerillas who were either well-entrenched, or in inaccessible positions, in the gorge. Practically surrounded by an enemy they could not reach, the Americans lost in a short time 9 men killed, and 2 officers and 7 men wounded, nearly all belonging to the advance guard. One Filipino guerilla was killed. An attempt to advance against a part of the Filipino position was frustrated by encountering innumerable arrow traps, spear pits and pitfalls to which an officer and several men owe their wounds. To avoid getting annihilated, the Americans quickly withdrew, leaving their dead and most of the rifles of those killed.
In his official report to the US War Department, Maj. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr., censured Captain Millar: "The palpable mismanagement in this affair consists in not having reconnoitered the enemy's position, but there appears to be no means of reaching a force intrenched, as was this one, in a carefully selected position, which must be approached in single file through a pathless jungle, nor any reason why it should be attacked at all, because, under the circumstances, it does not threaten our troops nor any natives under their protection, and it is sufficient to keep it under observation."
Americans assault Macahambus Gorge a second time. Photo taken during the period Dec. 19-20, 1900. Captains Thomas Millar and James Mayes jointly led 155 officers and men of the 40th Infantry into the gorge, shelled the guerillas' strongholds, but found them deserted.
Americans inside a deserted guerilla stronghold in Macahambus Gorge. Photo taken during the period Dec. 19-20, 1900.
American encampment at Macahambus. On Dec. 21, 1900, 1Lt. Richard Cravens and a detachment of Company M were ordered to occupy Macahambus.
On Jan. 4, 1901, Apolinar Velez (LEFT, postwar photo) was surprised and captured in Opol town, Misamis Province, by Maj. James F. Case, who led a force of 40 mounted men of Company L, 40th Infantry Regiment USV.
Velez was born on Jan 23, 1865, to a wealthy family in Cagayan de Misamis. In 1884, he worked as a clerk in the court of first instance of Misamis. From 1886 to 1891, he held the positions of oficial de mesa,interpreter, and defensor depresos pobres. On May 10, 1887, he married Leona Chaves y Roa, thus linking two of the most prominent clans in Misamis.
He enlisted in the Spanish army and became a second lieutenant of infantry. He was decorated with the Medalla de Mindanao.
In 1898, he joined Aguinaldo's government; he was appointed chief of the division of justice of the Revolutionary Government of Misamis. In 1900, he was assigned the rank of major in the army and appointed as commander of the "El Mindanao" battalion. He later rose to the rank of Colonel.
From 1901 to 1906, Velez held the post of provincial secretary after which he was elected governor of Misamis and served for two terms. In 1928-1931, he served as mayor of Cagayan de Misamis.
He died on Oct. 21, 1939.
GENERAL VICENTE ALVAREZ ATTACKS OROQUIETA, JULY 12, 1900. General Alvarez, who headed the short-lived "Republica de Zamboanga" (May 18, 1899 - Nov. 16, 1899), moved to Misamis Province and assaulted the garrison of Company I, 40th Infantry USV, in Oroquieta on July 12, 1900.
He and his men were repulsed. The Americans reported 2 killed and 1 wounded on their side, and 101 Filipinos killed and wounded.
On Oct. 17, 1900, General Alvarez, his staff and 25 men were surprised in their camp near Oroquieta and captured without a fight by Capt. Walter B. Elliott, commanding officer of Company I, 40th Infantry Regiment USV. The Americans took advantage of the cover provided by the stormy night.
An American newspaper reported: "The capture is important and will tend to pacify the district. Alvarez had been for a long time provoking hostilities in Mindanao. It was he who effected the disastrous attack on Oroquieta some time ago and he was preparing another when he was captured." [RIGHT, Monument to General Vicente Alvarez in Zamboanga City]
Alvarez was already serving as a high official in the Spanish colonial administration when he turned around and joined the revolution against Spain in March 1898. He led his forces in the successful capture of Zamboanga in May 1898. President and General Emilio Aguinaldo appointed him as head of the revolutionary government of Zamboanga and Basilan.
He was born in 1854 and died in 1910.
The American barracks at Jaro, Leyte, occupied by a detachment of Company B, 43rd Infantry Regiment of U.S. Volunteers, was attacked at 4:00 a.m. by about 1,000 Filipino guerillas. The detachment commander was 2Lt. Charles C. Estes. [The Company Commander was Capt. Linwood E. Hanson].
Original caption: "Rapid Fire Gatling Gun on Firing Line, 600 Shots per Minute, Philippine Islands."
The battle lasted for four hours. The Americans reported 125 Filipinos killed, with no casualties on their side.
Jaro is an interior town located 39 kilometers northwest of present-day Tacloban City.
Church of St. Joseph, Catubig, Samar
On April 15, 1900, 300 Catubig militiamen led by Domingo Rebadulla laid siege on 31 men of Company H, 43rd Infantry of US Volunteers, commanded by Sgt. Dustin L. George, who were quartered in the convent of the Church of St. Joseph. The militia was later reinforced by about 600 men from Gen. Vicente Lukban's army.
The Americans managed to withdraw to the bank of the river where they entrenched themselves. On the 19th, 1Lt. Joseph T. Sweeney, with a dozen men, effected a landing and brought the hard-pressed soldiers away..
The Americans reported 19 dead and 3 wounded and estimated Filipino losses at 200 dead and many wounded.
The U.S. War Department recorded the event as “…the heaviest bloody encounter yet for the American troops” against the Filipino freedom fighters.
The New York Times called the Battle of Catubig, “horrifying”.
Cpl. Anthony J. Carson, of Boston, Massachusetts, was given the U.S. highest military award, the Congressional Medal of Honor, for his, according to the citation:
“Assuming command of a detachment of the company which had survived an overwhelming attack of the enemy, and by his bravery and untiring effort and the exercise of good judgment in the handling of his men successfully withstood for 2 days the attacks of a large force of the enemy, thereby saving the lives of the survivors and protecting the wounded until relief came.”
Domingo Rebadulla was later elected as the first mayor of Catubig under the US regime.
In 7 encounters during the period April 16-25, 1900, 453 of Father Gregorio Aglipay's poorly-armed men died in action in Vintar, Laoag and Batac. The Americans suffered only a total of 3 men killed in these engagements.
On April 16, Capt. Frank L. French, with a detachment of the 33rd Infantry Regiment of United States Volunteers (USV), known as the "Texas Regiment" because of the popular belief that it was composed of ex-cowboys, struck a body of about 100 Filipinos in the mountains north of Vintar, killing 23 and suffering no casualties.
On April 17, the town of Laoag, garrisoned by Companies F, G and H, 34th Infantry Regiment, USV, and commanded by Lt. Col. Robert Lee Howze, West Point Class 1888 (LEFT), was attacked by about 200 Filipinos, armed with 20 rifles and the rest with bolos(machetes) and clubs. The Filipinos suffered 44 dead, 16 wounded and 70 captured. The Americans were unscathed.
On the same day, 1Lt. Arthur G. Duncan, commanding 8 men of the 34th Infantry Regiment, USV, met 300 Filipinos with 70 rifles in the mountains near Laoag, killed 29 and captured 22. The Filipinos, upon discovering the smallness of the enemy patrol, went after the Americans.
Duncan and his men retreated toward Batac, where Capt. Christopher J. Rollis prepared for them. The Filipinos, now numbering about 600, made a determined attack, but were repulsed, suffering a loss of 180 killed and 72 prisoners. American casualties were 2 men killed and 3 wounded.
On April 18, Capt. George Allen Dodd, West Point Class 1876, in command of a detachment of the 3rd Cavalry, met a group of 180 Filipinos, with 70 rifles, near Cullebeng. After one hour's fighting, 53 Filipinos were killed, 4 wounded and 44 taken prisoner. One American was slightly wounded. Captain Dodd also captured 10 horses.
Original caption: "Our brave scouts firing on the fleeing Filipinos, P.I." Photo was taken in 1900, location not specified.
On April 19, 1Lt. Arthur Thayer with a detachment of Troop A, 3rd Cavalry, skirmished with 25 Filipinos near Batac and killed 4. One American soldier was killed.
On April 25, Capt. George Allen Dodd (RIGHT, as Colonel in 1916), with a detachment of the 3rd Cavalry, struck about 300 Filipinos armed with rifles, bolos and spears near Batac. The engagement lasted one hour and fifteen minutes.
The Filipinos had 120 killed, 5 taken prisoner and 12 horses captured. The only American casualty was a Sergeant Cook who was slightly cut by a spear.
April 25, 1900: Soldiers of the 29th US Volunteer Infantry Regiment wading ashore on Marinduque Island
Marinduque was the first island to have American concentration camps. An American, Andrew Birtle, wrote in 1972: "The pacification of Marinduque was characterized by extensive devastation and marked one of the earliest employments of population concentration in the Philippine War, techniques that would eventually be used on a much larger scale in the two most famous campaigns of the war, those of Brigadier Generals J. Franklin Bell in Batangas and Jacob H. Smith in Samar."
Company F, 29th US Volunteer Infantry Regiment
Marinduque is the site of the Battle of Pulang Lupa, where on Sept. 13, 1900, Filipino guerillas under Col. Maximo Abad ambushed a 54-man detachment of Company F, 29th US Volunteer Infantry, led by Capt. Devereaux Shields. Four Americans were killed, while the rest were forced to surrender.
The defeat shocked the American high command. Aside from being one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans during the war, it was especially significant given its proximity to the upcoming election between President William Mckinley and his anti-imperialist opponent William Jennings Bryan, the outcome of which many believed would determine the ultimate course of the war. Consequently, the defeat triggered a sharp response.
American patrol with Filipino boys at a village. Photo taken in 1900, location not specified
Americans patrol with fixed bayonets. Photo taken in 1900, location not specified
An American patrol routs a Filipino reconnoitering party. Photo taken in 1900, location not specified
Catarman is a town on the north coast of Samar island, situated on the Catarman River, 55 miles northeast of Catbalogan.
On April 30, 1900, at about 9:30 p.m., Filipino guerillas sneaked into town and attacked Company F, 43rd Infantry Regiment USV. The Americans, commanded by Capt. John Cooke, were garrisoned in the convent of the church.
The Filipinos, estimated to number between 500 and 600 with 100 rifles, drove in the outposts, wounding one US soldier. The rest of the American sentinels retreated into the convent. The Americans decided to wait until daylight. During the night, there was desultory firing on both sides.
At daybreak, May 1, the Americans saw that the Filipinos had built trenches on three sides of the convent. The fourth side, dense with underbrush and cut by a path leading to the beach, was left open. After the battle, the Americans discovered that the path was full of mantraps.
Original caption: "Did not run fast enough to escape the Crag bullet, P.I." Photo taken in 1900, location not specified.
Captain Cooke, leaving word to keep a rapid fire on the trenches, took 30 men and flanked the trenches on the north side of the convent, driving the Filipinos out and killing 52 of them. He then flanked the trenches on the south side, driving the Filipinos out and killing 57, while having one man wounded.
The Americans then made a general move and the Filipinos were completely driven off.
A total of 154 Filipinos were killed, while the Americans suffered only two men wounded.
May 5, 1900: General MacArthur becomes VIII Army Corps Commander and Military Governor of the Philippines
General MacArthur (4th from LEFT, 1st Row) and his staff, 1900.
On May 5, 1900 Maj. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr. replaced Maj. Gen. Elwell S. Otis as VIII Army Corps Commander and Military Governor of the Philippines.
Malacañan Palace fronting on the Pasig River. Photo taken in 1899.
He moved into the Malacañan Palace, a Moorish edifice by the Pasig river which had served as the residence of the Spanish governors-general. His military command, the Division of the Philippines, the largest in the Army at the time, included 71,727 enlisted men and 2,367 officers in 502 garrisons throughout the country.
Americans and Filipinos drinking beer by the Pasig river. Photo was taken in 1900.
U.S. soldiers marching on Calle Concordia in Manila. Photo was taken in 1900.
On June 15, 1900, General Francisco Makabulos y Soliman surrendered to Colonel Emerson H. Liscum (SEE PHOTO BELOW) of the 9th US Regular Infantry in a barrio in Camiling, Tarlac. He gave up with 9 officers and 124 men; he turned over 124 firearms. He was the last general in Central Luzon to surrender to the Americans, doing so mainly due to lack of arms and ammunition. A family emergency might have played a big factor, too, in his decision to give up. His wife, Dorotea Pascual, had a difficult childbirth where she nearly lost her life. She pleaded with him to stay by her side and their newborn.
He turned over the large amount of Mexican currency which he had captured from the Spaniards. He need not have to, and nobody would been the wiser, but Makabulos apparently was a man of high integrity.
His surname means "one who prefers to be free." Born in La Paz, Tarlac, on Sept. 17, 1871, he was the son of Alejandro Makabulos, a native of Lubao, Pampanga, and Gregoria Soliman, a native of Tondo, Manila. His mother was a descendant of Rajah Soliman, hero of the 1571 battle of Bangkusay, Manila.
He had no formal education; he learned to write and speak Spanish from his mother. He had an excellent penmanship and served as parish clerk for the town priest for many years.
With the help of Don Valentin Diaz, one of the founders of the Katipunan, he propagated the tenets of the secret revolutionary society throughout Tarlac Province. Makabulos organized his friends and kin into arnis ("fighting stick") and bolo brigades. He started with 70 men, which soon grew in number as people from the nearby towns of Tarlac, Capas, Bamban and Victoria rallied under his banner. On Jan. 24, 1897, Makabulos and his bolo brigades raised the "Cry of Tarlac" and took over the municipal hall of La Paz during the town fiesta celebration.
In June 1897, in Mt. Puray, Montalban, Morong (now Rizal Province), General Emilio Aguinaldo promoted Makabulos to General of all revolutionary forces in Pampanga, Tarlac, and Pangasinan. He set up his encampment in sitio Kamansi on the slopes of Mt. Arayat. In November 1897, an assault by a massive Spanish force commanded by General Ricardo Monet dislodged him from his Sinukuan sanctuary.
The Revolution temporarily ceased following the Dec. 14, 1897 Truce of Biyak-na-Bato. His fellow rebel leaders went on exile in Hong Kong but Makabulos distrusted Spanish intentions; he made preparations for the resumption of the revolution. On April 17, 1898, in Lomboy, La Paz, he set up his Central Directive Committee of Central and Northern Luzon, often referred to as the Makabulos Provisional Government. It functioned under a constitution, the "Makabulos Constitution", which he himself drafted.
He rallied to General Emilio Aguinaldo when the latter returned and renewed the struggle on May 19, 1898. On July 10, 1898, he liberated Tarlac Province from Spanish rule. On July 22, 1898, he liberated Pangasinan Province. He was appointed to the Malolos Congress which opened on Sept. 15, 1898, representing the province of Cebu.
Photo taken in 1900. The 12th Infantry Regiment (Regulars) occupied 9 towns in Tarlac Province (Badoc, Capas, Concepcion, Gerona, La Paz, Paniqui, San Nicolas, Tarlac and Victoria), and 2 towns in Nueva Ecija Province (Cuyapo and Guimba).
The 12th Infantry fording the river near Tarlac Province.
The Filipino-American War saw General Makabulos as politico-military governor of Tarlac Province. He struck a close friendship with GeneralAntonio Luna. On the latter's order, he presided over the execution of General Pedro Pedroche on the grounds of the Camiling Catholic Church (PHOTO, LEFT). Luna had charged Pedroche with rebellion. When Aguinaldo summoned Luna to come to Cabanatuan for a conference, Luna asked Makabulos to accompany him, but the latter said he was indisposed at the moment but he was going to follow the next day. Makabulos was preparing to go to Cabanatuan when he received news that Luna had been assassinated on June 5, 1899.
Makabulos was a founding member of the pro-American Partido Federal when it was organized on Dec. 23, 1900.
He was elected municipal president of La Paz in 1908, and later served as councilor of Tarlac, Tarlac.
Makabulos became locally famous as a writer of zarzuelas (plays that alternate between spoken and sung scenes). Among his works were "Uldarico" and "Rosaura." He also wrote a zarzuela out of Balagtas’ "Florante at Laura." He translated the opera "Aida" into Tagalog.
He died of pneumonia in Tarlac on April 30, 1922 at the age of 51.
Col. Emerson H. Liscum of the US 9th Regular Infantry Regiment in San Fernando, Pampanga Province, on Aug. 1, 1899. A month after accepting General Makabulos' surrender, Col. Liscum was killed in Tientsin, China on July 13, 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion
Mabitac is a municipality situated on the eastern side of the province of Laguna.
On Sept. 17, 1900, about 800 Filipinos under General Juan Cailles (LEFT) defeated 145 soldiers of the 37th and 15th Infantry regiments commanded by Colonel Benjamin F. Cheatham, Jr.
The battle began when the Americans came under intense fire some 400 yards from the Filipino trenches. Eight troopers sent ahead to scout the Filipino positions were all killed. One of the last to fall was 2nd Lieutenant George Cooper. General Cailles, in an honorable gesture, allowed Cheatham to retrieve the bodies of his men.
The main body of the U.S. Infantry got pinned down in waist-deep mud, still several hundred yards from the Filipino trenches. Captain John E. Moran was later awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for trying to rally his demoralized comrades.
Supporting fire from a US Navy gunboat (some 1,300 yards distant) and a flank attack by 60 Americans failed to dislodge the Filipinos from their positions.
Photo was taken in 1900, somewhere in Luzon Island
Cheatham withdrew, re-consolidated his forces and prepared to launch another offensive.
General Cailles ordered a withdrawal in order to avoid envelopment, and by the next day, his entire command had made good its escape.
The Americans lost 21 killed and 23 wounded; the Filipinos suffered 11 killed and 20 wounded. Among the Filipino dead was Lieutenant Colonel Fidel Sario.
American Major-General John C. Bates later said of this battle: "It is deemed charitable as well as politic to drop a veil over this matter rather than to give any publicity that can be avoided."
On Oct. 14, 1900, Company D of the 44th Infantry Regiment USV, commanded by 1Lt Richard W. Buchanan, clashed with Filipino guerillas in Ormoc, Leyte Island. The Americans suffered no casualties, while 116 Filipinos were killed.
Soldiers of Company K, 33rd Volunteer Infantry Regiment, at Narvacan, Ilocos Sur Province. PHOTO was taken in 1900.
On Oct. 24, 1900, an American force consisting of 40 men of Company H, 33rd Infantry Regiment USV, and 2Lt. Grayson Heidt, with 60 men of Troop L, 3rd Cavalry, left Narvacan, Ilocos Sur Province, under the command of 1Lt. George Febiger, 33rd Infantry, to attack the Filipinos at barrio Cosocos, Nagbukel town, Ilocos Sur, about 22 kilometers away.
American soldiers find the bodies of 3 dead comrades lying by the roadside. Photo was taken in 1900, location not specified.
The last 3 kilometers of the road is through a canyon with precipitous walls. Within 300 meters of barrio Cosocos, the point man discovered and opened fire on the Filipinos, estimated to number 400 and commanded by Juan Villamor. They were in position on both sides of the canyon and entrenched in front. After half an hour's engagement, seeing the Filipinos had the advantage in numbers and position, the precipitous sides of the canyon preventing a flanking movement, Lieutenant Febiger ordered a retreat. The Americans were compelled to fight their way out of the canyon, Lieutenant Febiger taking the advance and Lieutenant Heidt the rearguard.
SAME scene as in preceding photo. Original caption: "'Tis sad to leave them but they died bravely in the front ranks of the battle, P.I.".
Within 800 meters outside the mouth of the canyon, Lieutenant Febiger was killed; an attempt was made to carry his body along, but owing to the aggressiveness of the Filipinos his body had to be left on the field.
As the firing was at close range for most of the time, the Americans estimated Filipino losses in killed and wounded at over 100. [Maj. Gen. Adnan R. Chaffee reported that 50 Filipinos were killed and 100 wounded.]
Total American losses were 5 killed, 14 wounded and 8 captured (released the following day by Juan Villamor). The Americans also lost 9 rifles, 1 carbine and 24 horses.
Feb. 2, 1901: General Martin Delgado formally surrenders to Brig. Gen. Robert P. Hughes with 30 officers and 140 men in Jaro, Iloilo
An American historian wrote, "As a result of this surrender, 41,000 inhabitants of the Province of Iloilo took the oath of allegiance."
Lonoy was a hilly barrio of Jagna town, Bohol Island. It was about 10 kilometers from thepoblacion.
There were two Filipino guerilla encampments on Mt. Verde in Barrio Lonoy. Miguel Valmoria'scampsite was in the upper part of Lonoy, while Gregorio "Goyo" Caseñas' was in the lower part of the village.
On March 5, 1901 Valmoria received a communication from the general headquarters of Bohol guerilla leader, Pedro Samson, that the Americans had started moving towards his (Valmoria's) camp.
Valmoria warned Caseñas that his camp (Caseñas') will be first to be attacked. Believing that the American troops will pass through Lonoy via a narrow path, Caseñas and his men dug trenches and foxholes on both sides of the path, covered and camouflaged. Waiting in the trenches and foxholes were 413 guerillas, nearly all armed only with daggers, bolos and spears.
Unknown to them, the Americans had learned of the ambush plan from a pro-American native, Francisco Salas, who led the Americans to the rear of the Filipino defenses.
On March 8, 1901, the Americans struck from behind, catching the would-be ambushers totally offguard; they shot and bayoneted the guerillas to death in their trenches; the Americans had received orders not to take prisoners and any Filipinos attempting to surrender were gunned down
When the smoke cleared, 406 of the Bohol natives lay dead on the ground, including Caseñas, and only 7 survived.
The Americans suffered 3 killed and 10 wounded.
On March 10, 1901, General Mariano Riego de Dios surrendered to Col. Walter S. Schuyler (RIGHT) of the 46th Regular Infantry in Naik,Cavite. He brought with him 5 officers, 57 enlisted men and 62 firearms.
Riego de Dios was born on Sept. 12, 1875 in Maragondon, Cavite. He became a member of the Katipunan on July 12, 1896. He was among the first Caviteños to join the revolutionary society. In October 1896, he was among the Katipuneros who attacked the Spanish garrison in Lian, Batangas. He was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General after the triumphant defense of Noveleta, Cavite in 1896.
He was member of the council of war that tried and convicted the Bonifacio brothers (Andres and Procorpio) of sedition and treason against the revolutionary government of Emilio Aguinaldo. The brothers were sentenced to death but Riego de Dios believed the sentence was harsh and abstained from signing the death verdict.
He died on Feb. 17, 1935. Camp General Mariano Riego de Dios in Tanza, Cavite was named in his honor.
General Mariano Trias was born on Oct. 12, 1868 in San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias), Cavite province. He went to Manila and enrolled at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran for his Bachelor of Arts, then to the Universidad de Santo Tomas for his course in Medicine, which he was unable to finish as he returned home to help his parents manage the farm holdings.
He joined the Katipunan before the revolution broke out on Aug. 30, 1896 and became an active propagandist of the society against the ruling Spaniards in the towns of Silang and Kawit.
On Nov. 1, 1897, the Biak-na-Bato Republic was established. Emilio Aguinaldo was president and Trías was vice president.
On Jan. 23, 1899, with the establishment of the Philippine republic, he was appointed as Secretary of Finance. He later held the post of Secretary of War. After Filipino forces were practically dispersed in Central Luzon by the US army, he was named commanding general of Southern Luzon. He directed guerrilla offensive moves in Cavite province.
He figured in a series of furious skirmishes with the troops of Brig. Gen. Lloyd Wheaton in January 1900 when he defended Cavite until his men were finally dispersed.
General Trías set free all the Spanish prisoners under his command in May 1900.
On March 15, 1901, he surrendered to Colonel (later Major General) Frank Dwight Baldwin (RIGHT, as Major General) at San Francisco de Malabon, accompanied by Severino de las Alas, former Secretary of the Interior, Ladislao Diwa, ex-governor of Cavite, 9 army officers and 199 enlisted men.
Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr., viewed this as "a most auspicious event, indicating the final stage of armed insurrection. The prestige of Trias in southern Luzon was equal to that of Aguinaldo."
With the establishment of the civil government by the Americans, Civil Governor William Howard Taft appointed him the first Civil Governor of Cavite on June 11, 1901 and he served until 1905.
A street in Cavite, photo taken in January 1904
In late January 1905, Julian Montalan, one of Macario Sakay's generals, raided San Francisco de Malabon. The guerillas overcame the constabulary force and captured their weapons. In departing, they kidnapped the wife and two small children of Governor Trias.This action was taken in response to Trias's collaborationist policies and his arrest of those suspected of aiding the guerillas. Trias was the actual target but he managed to escape by jumping through a window and submerging himself in a canal, which flowed in the rear of his premises. His wife was reportedly abused and one of her ribs broken by the butt of a gun. The family was recovered shortly thereafter by the Constabulary.
Trias organized the first chapter of the Nacionalista Party in Cavite. He was a member of the honorary board of Filipino commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. He was acting governor of Cavite when he died of appendicitis at the Philippine General Hospital on Feb. 22, 1914.
Balangiga Massacre, September 28, 1901
Some soldiers of Company C, 9th U.S. Infantry ("Manchus") Regiment, in Balangiga in August 1901. Valeriano Abanador, the native chief of police who would lead the attack on the Balangiga garrison seven weeks later, is standing with arms folded across his chest (sixth from right).
On Aug 11, 1901, Company C, 9th US Infantry Regiment, arrived in Balangiga on the southern coast of Samar island, to close its port and prevent supplies reaching Filipino guerillas in the interior.
A glamour unit, Company C was assigned provost duty and guarded the captured President Emilio Aguinaldo upon their return to the Philippines on June 5, 1901, after fighting Boxer rebels and helping capture Peking in China.
They also performed as honor guard during the historic July 4, 1901 inauguration of the American civil government in the Philippines and the installation as first civil governor of William Howard Taft, later president of the U.S.
Soldiers of the 9th US Infantry "Manchus" Regiment enjoying a cockfight, somewhere in the Philippines. Thirteen companies arrived in Manila on April 23 and 27, 1899. The regiment was temporarily deployed to China during the Boxer rebellion and arrived there on July 6, 1900. Three members were awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism at Tientsin on July 13, 1900, including Pvt. Robert H. Von Schlick of Company C, who was killed in action. Grateful Chinese officials bestowed on the regiment the nickname “Manchu”. Eleven companies returned to Manila on June 2, 1901, and the remaining two on June 5, 1901. They left the Philippines in batches on June 12 and 20, 1902.
Filipino historian, Prof. Rolando O. Borrinaga, tells the story of the massacre in an article entitled "Vintage View: The Balangiga Incident and Its Aftermath":
"The first month of Company C’s presence in Balangiga was marked by extensive fraternization between the Americans and the local residents. The friendly activities included tuba (native wine) drinking among the soldiers and native males, baseball games and arnis (stick fighting) demonstrations in the town plaza, and even a romantic link between an American sergeant, Frank Betron, and a native woman church leader, Casiana “Geronima” Nacionales.
"Tensions rose when on September 22, at a tuba store, two drunken American soldiers tried to molest the girl tending the store. The girl was rescued by her two brothers, who mauled the soldiers. In retaliation, the Company Commander, Capt. Thomas W. Connell, West Point class of 1894, rounded up 143 male residents for forced labor to clean up the town in preparation for an official visit by his superior officers. They were detained overnight without food under two conical Sibley tents in the town plaza, each of which could only accommodate 16 persons; 78 of the detainees remained the next morning, after 65 others were released due to age and physical infirmity. Finally, Connell ordered the confiscation from their houses of all sharp bolos, and the confiscation and destruction of stored rice. Feeling aggrieved, the townspeople plotted to attack the U.S. Army garrison.
"The mastermind was Valeriano Abanador (LEFT, IN OLD AGE), a Letran dropout and the local chief of police; he was assisted by five locals and two guerilla officers under the command of Brig. Gen. Vicente Lukban: Capt. Eugenio Daza and Sgt. Pedro Duran, Sr. The lone woman plotter was Casiana “Geronima” Nacionales. Lukban played no role in the planning of the attack; he only learned about it a week later. About 500 men in seven attack units would take part. They represented virtually all families of Balangiga, whose outlying villages then included the present towns of Lawaan and Giporlos, and of Quinapundan, a town served by the priest in Balangiga.
"On September 27, Friday, the natives sought divine help and intervention for the success of their plot through an afternoon procession and marathon evening novena prayers to their protector saints inside the church. They also ensured the safety of the women and children by having them leave the town after midnight, hours before the attack. Pvt. Adolph Gamlin observed women and children evacuating the town and reported it, but he was ignored.
"To mask the disappearance of the women from the dawn service inside the church, 34 attackers from Barrio Lawaan cross-dressed as women worshippers.
"At 6:45 a.m., on Saturday, September 28, Abanador grabbed Pvt. Adolph Gamlin's rifle from behind and hit him unconscious with its butt. Abanador turned the rifle at the men in the sergeant’s mess tent, wounding one. He then waved a rattan cane above his head, and yelled: “Atake, mga Balangigan-on! (Attack, men of Balangiga!). A bell in the church tower was rung seconds later, to announce that the attack had begun.
"The guards outside the convent and municipal hall were killed. The Filipinos apparently sealed in the Sibley tents at the front of the municipal hall, having had weapons smuggled to them in water carriers, broke free and entered the municipal hall and made their way to the second floor. The men in the church broke into the convent through a connecting corridor and killed the officers who were billeted there. The mess tent and the two barracks were attacked. Most of the Americans were hacked to death before they could grab their firearms. The few who escaped the main attack fought with kitchen utensils, steak knives, and chairs.
"The convent was successfully occupied and so, initially, was the municipal hall, but the mess tent and barracks attack suffered a fatal flaw - about one hundred men were split into three groups, one of each target but too few attackers had been assigned to ensure success. A number of Co. C. personnel escaped from the mess tent and the barracks and were able to retake the municipal hall, arm themselves and fight back. Adolph Gamlin recovered consciousness, found a rifle and caused considerable casualties among the Filipinos. [Gamlin died at age 92 in the U.S. in 1969].
"Faced with immensely superior firepower and a rapidly degrading attack, Abanador ordered a retreat. But with insufficient numbers and fear that the rebels would re-group and attack again, the surviving Americans, led by Sgt. Frank Betron, escaped by baroto(native canoes with outriggers, navigated by using wooden paddles) to Basey, Samar, about 20 miles away. The townspeople returned to bury their dead, then abandoned the town."
Capt. Edwin V. Bookmiller, West Point Class 1889 and commander of Company G of the 9th US Infantry at Basey, commandeered a civilian coastal steamer from Tacloban, the SS Pittsburg, and with his men steamed to Balangiga. The town was deserted. The dead of Company C lay where they fell, many bearing horrible hack wounds. Bookmiller and his men burned the town to the ground.
Of the original 74 man contingent, 48 died and 26 survived, 22 of them severely wounded. The dead included all of Company C's commissioned officers: Capt. Thomas W. Connell (RIGHT), 1st Lt. Edward A. Bumpus, and Maj. Richard S. Griswold (the Company surgeon). The guerillas also took 100 rifles with 25,000 rounds of ammunition; 28 Filipinos died and 22 were wounded.
The massacre shocked the U.S. public; many newspaper editors noted that it was the worst disaster suffered by the U.S. Army since Custer's last stand at Little Big Horn. An infuriated Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, military governor for the “unpacified” areas of the Philippines, assured the press that "the situation calls for shot, shells and bayonets as the natives are not to be trusted." He advised newspaper correspondent Joseph Ohl, "If you should hear of a few Filipinos more or less being put away don't grow too sentimental over it."
Chaffee informed his officers that it was his intention "to give the Filipinos 'bayonet rule' for years to come." President Theodore Roosevelt ordered Chaffee to adopt "in no unmistakable terms," the "most stern measures to pacify Samar."
Adna Romanza Chaffee (LEFT, in 1898) was born in Ohio in 1842. A veteran of the Civil war and countless Indian campaigns, he served throughout the Spanish-American War, and commanded American troops in the capture of Peking, China, during the Boxer rebellion. He replaced Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr., as military governor of the “unpacified” areas of the Philippines on July 4, 1901. He appointed Brigadier Generals James Franklin Bell to Batangas and Jacob Smith to Samar, with orders to do whatever was necessary to destroy the opposition--he wanted an Indian-style campaign. Chaffee’s orders were largely responsible for the atrocities that marked the later stages of the war. When the war ended in 1902, Chaffee returned to the States, where he served as lieutenant general and Chief of Staff for the U.S. Army from 1904-1906. He retired in 1906 and died in 1914.
St. Anthony Church: the present structure dates from 1927. The original church was burned down by the Americans on September 29, 1901
General Jake "Howling" Smith and his staff inspecting the ruins of Balangiga in October 1901, a few weeks after the retaliation by Captain Bookmiller and his troops.
Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee (left) and Brig. Gen. Jacob Smith in Tacloban, Leyte in 1902
Colors of the 9th Infantry Regiment, Calbayog, Samar. These same colors entered Santiago (Cuba), Tarlac (Philippines), and Peking (China).
Survivors of Balangiga Massacre in April 1902 photo taken in Calbayog, Samar
Source: L. Mervin Maus's book, An Army Officer On Leave In Japan, published in 1911.
This 1895 Balangiga bell ---the smallest of the three Balangiga church bells---was turned over to the headquarters of the 9th U.S. Infantry Regiment in Calbayog, Samar, around April 1902. This relic is on permanent display at the museum of the 9th U.S. Infantry, stationed in Camp Hovey, Tongduchon, South Korea. It is now considered by most Filipino historians as the one that was rung during the Balangiga attack.
The two bigger Balangiga bells: These were brought to the U.S. by returning 11th Infantry soldiers to their home station at the former Fort D.A. Russell, now the F.E. Warren Air Force Base, in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Both are displayed at the Balangiga Memorial in its Trophy Park.
Brig. Gen. Jacob H. Smith's infamous order "KILL EVERYONE OVER TEN" was the caption in the New York Journal cartoon on May 5, 1902. The Old Glory draped an American shield on which a vulture replaced the bald eagle. The bottom caption exclaimed, "Criminals Because They Were Born Ten Years Before We Took the Philippines." The Philippine occupation was the first war, historian Gail Buckley has pointed out, in which “American officers and troops were officially charged with what we would now call war crimes.” In 44 military trials, all of which ended in convictions, including that of General Jacob Smith, “sentences, almost invariably, were light.” The Baltimore American had to admit the U.S. occupation “aped” Spain's cruelty and committed crimes “we went to war to banish.”
The U.S. Army's retaliation measures included actions that resulted in the courts-martial of two field commanders, . Brig. Gen. Jacob "Howling Jake" Smith (LEFT, in Tagbilaran in 1901) and Marine Maj. Littleton Waller.
After the massacre at Balangiga, General Smith issued his infamous Circular No. 6, and ordered his command thus: "I want no prisoners" and "I wish you to kill and burn; and the more you burn and kill, the better it will please me." Then he tasked his men to reduce Samar into a "howling wilderness," to kill anyone 10 years old and above capable of bearing arms.
He stressed that, "Every native will henceforth be treated as an enemy until he has conclusively shown that he is a friend." His policy would be "to wage war in the sharpest and most decisive manner," and that "a course would be pursued that would create a burning desire for peace." [On Dec. 29, 1890, as a cavalryman, Smith was present at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, an incident ---also referred to as a massacre---that left about 300 Sioux men, women and children, and 29 Army soldiers dead.]
An American river expedition in Samar
In Samar, he gave his subordinates carte blanche authority in the application of Abraham Lincoln’s 1863 General Order 100. This order, in brief, authorized the shooting on sight of all persons not in uniform acting as soldiers and those committing, or seeking to commit, sabotage.
The exact number of civilians massacred by US troops will never be known, but exhaustive research made by a sympathetic British writer in the 1990s put the figure at about 2,500; Filipino historians believe it was around 50,000.
General Smith and Major Waller (RIGHT) underwent separate courts-martial for their roles in the suppressive campaign of Nov 1901- Jan 1902. Although he received the "Kill all over ten" order from Gen. Smith, Waller countermanded it and told his men not to obey it.
However, he was specifically tried for murder in the summary execution of 11 Filipino porters. After a long march, Marine Lt. A.S. Wlliams accused the porters of mutinuous behavior, hiding food and supplies and keeping themselves nourished from the jungle while the Marines starved. Waller ordered the execution of the porters. Ten were shot in groups of three, while one was gunned down in the water attempting to escape. The bodies were left in the square of Lanang (now Llorente), as an example, until one evening, under cover of darkness, some townspeople carried them off for a Christian burial.
An American expedition enters the Calbiga River, Samar
USS Vicksburg sailors led by Lt. ((later Rear Admiral) Henry V. Butler burning a village church in Samar, October 1901.
In an eleven-day span, Major Waller also reported that his men burned 255 dwellings, slaughtered 13 carabaos and killed 39 people. Other officers reported similar activity.
US Marines in action in the Philippines; at left, a Marine appears to have been hit. Photo was probably taken in Samar island, where the Marines battled extensively with General Vicente Lukban's guerillas in 1901-1902. During the Philippine-American War, 50 US Marines were killed in combat while 300 died from other causes, mainly disease. The "Philippine Insurrection" was the basis of the US Marine Corps' Small Wars Manual, which remains its bible to this day.
Smith commanded the Sixth Separate Brigade, which included a battalion of 315 Marines under Waller. Waller's court martial acquitted him but Smith's found him guilty, for which he was admonished and retired from the service. Gen. Smith was born in 1840 and died in San Diego, California on March 1, 1918.
USS Vicksburg sailors led by Lt. ((later Rear Admiral) Henry V. Butler burning a village in Samar, October 1901.
Outcry in America over the brutal nature of the Samar campaign cost Waller his chance at the Commandancy of the US Marine Corps. Liberal newspapers took to addressing him as "The Butcher Of Samar".
Waller was born in York County, Virginia on Sept. 26, 1856. He was appointed as a second lieutenant of Marines on June 24, 1880. He rose to Major General, retired in June 1920 and died on July 13, 1926. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. In 1942, the destroyer USS Waller was named in his honor.
In April 1902, Abanador accepted the general amnesty offered by the Americans. He died sometime in the 1950's.
Balangiga Plaza in front of the municipal hall with a monument to Valeriano Abanador. An annual event, “Balangiga Encounter Day”, was made possible by the passage into law on February 10, 1989 of Republic Act. No 6692, “An Act Declaring September Twenty-Eight as Balangiga Encounter Day and a Special Non-Working Holiday in the Province of Eastern Samar.” The original bill was filed by Eastern Samar Rep. Jose Tan Ramirez.
In the April 18, 1902 issue of the New York World,Richard Thomas O'Brien, formerly a corporal in Company M, 26th U.S. Volunteer Infantry Regiment, based in Miag-ao, Iloilo Province, Panay Island, described how his birthday went on Dec. 27, 1901 at Barrio Lanog: [LEFT, Miag-ao Church, late 1890's]
"It was on the 27th day of December, the anniversary of my birth, and I shall never forget the scenes I witnessed on that day. As we approached the town the word passed along the line that there would be no prisoners taken. It meant that we were to shoot every living thing in sight—man, woman, and child. The first shot was fired by the then first sergeant of our company. His target was a mere boy, who was coming down the mountain path into the town astride of a caribou. The boy was not struck by the bullet, but that was not the sergeant's fault. The little Filipino boy slid from the back of his caribou and fled in terror up the mountain side. Half a dozen shots were fired after him. The shooting now had attracted the villagers, who came out of their homes in alarm, wondering what it all meant. They offered no offense, did not display a weapon, made no hostile movement whatsoever, but they were ruthlessly shot down in cold blood—men, women, and children. The poor natives huddled together or fled in terror. Many were pursued and killed on the spot.
"Two old men, bearing between them a white flag and clasping hands like two brothers, approached the lines. Their hair was white. They fairly tottered, they were so feeble under the weight of years. To my horror and that of the other men in the command, the order was given to fire, and the two old men were shot down in their tracks. We entered the village. A man who had been on a sick-bed appeared at the doorway of his home. He received a bullet in the abdomen and fell dead in the doorway. Dum-dum bullets were used in that massacre, but we were not told the name of the bullets. We didn't have to be told. We knew what they were.
"In another part of the village a mother with a babe at her breast and two young children at her side pleaded for mercy. She feared to leave her home, which had just been fired—accidentally, I believe. She faced the flames with her children, and not a hand was raised to save her or the little ones. They perished miserably. It was sure death if she left the house—it was sure death if she remained. She feared the American soldiers, however, worse than the devouring flames."
Company M was commanded by Capt. Fred McDonald.
The Last Holdouts: General Vicente Lukban falls, Feb. 18, 1902
General Vicente Lukban (4th from Left, right hand on pistol holster), with staff officers on Samar Island.
General Vicente Lukban commanded Filipino guerilla forces on Samar and Leyte islands in the eastern Visayas, central Philippines.
General Vicente Lukban (in LEFT PHOTO, seated at center) as a prisoner of war, February 1902. Photos published in the Detroit Free Press-Illustrated Supplement, issue of May 17, 1903.
On Feb. 18, 1902, he was captured by a scouting party composed of Americans and Filipinos commanded by 1Lt. Alphonse Strebler of Company 39, Visayas, Philippine Scouts. Maj. Gen. Adna R. Chaffee, military governor for the “unpacified” areas of the Philippines, ordered that Lukban be treated as a prisoner of war of officer's rank.
General Vicente Lukban is flanked by his captor, 1Lt. Alphonse Strebler (LEFT), and 1Lt. Ray Hoover (RIGHT), officer-in-charge of the guard over him, February 1902. He was imprisoned in Talim Island in Laguna de Bay until July 15, 1902 after he took an oath of allegiance to the United States.
Four days later, on Feb. 22, 1902, at Cagbayan, Samar, 2Lt. Frank Pratt of the 1st U.S. Infantry Regiment, encountered and captured William C. Denton (LEFT, in February 1902), a deserter from the ill-fated Company C, 9th U.S. Infantry Regiment, who had joined Lukban's guerilla force. Eleven Filipinos in Denton's group were killed. [Denton deserted to the Filipinos shortly before the Balangiga massacre; Lukban described him as a "noble son of Washington, who had joined the Filipino cause as a lover of liberty."].
[Two weeks earlier, on Feb. 8, 1902, another white American deserter, John Winfrey, from the 43rd U.S. Infantry Regiment, was killed along with 8 Filipino guerillas in a clash with 1Lt. Allen Walker of Company 45, Visayas, Philippine Scouts. The encounter took place in the vicinity of Loguilocon, Samar. On his body was found a commission as second lieutenant from Gen. Vicente Lukban.]
On Feb. 27, 1902, the New York Times reported:
"The officials of the War Department regard the capture of Lucban as the most important military event since Aguinaldo's capture. He was run down on the Island of Samar. The place of his confinement is a tiny island in a bay on the north coast of Samar. Lucban is one of the most energetic and ferocious of rebels. He is a half-breed, a mixture of Chinese and Filipino stock, and has been an irreconcilable from the first. He had various fastnesses in the mountains of Samar, from which he would descend upon the coast towns, and his reign of terror was so complete that the entire population of the island paid tribute to him as the price of freedom from attack."
The Americans tagged Lukban as the mastermind of the infamous "Balangiga Massacre" on Sept. 28, 1901, in which 48 troopers of Company C, 9th U.S. Infantry Regiment, were killed. In fact, he played no part in the planning of the attack; he only learned about it a week later, on Oct. 6, 1901.
Lukban was born on Feb. 11, 1860 at Labo, Camarines Norte Province. After his elementary education at the Escuela Pia Publica in his hometown, he proceeded to Manila and completed his secondary schooling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. He took up Law at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, and then worked in the Court of First Instance in Quiapo, Manila, before becoming Justice of the Peace in Labo.
In 1894, he was inducted into the Masonic Lodge adopting the name "Luz del Oriente" (Light of the Orient) and co-founded Bicol Lodge in Libmanan, Camarines Sur with Juan Miguel. He joined the secret revolutionary society Katipunan that same year.
In 1896, Lukban resigned from government service and engaged in business and agriculture. He founded the agricultural society La Cooperativa Popular.
On Sept. 29, 1896 Lukban was in Manila attending a meeting of the agricultural society when Spanish authorities arrested him for his involvement with the Katipunan. He was kept at the Carcel de Bilibid and despite torture did not expose his fellow revolutionaries. Torture and imprisonment in a flooded cell left him with a permanent limp. He was released on May 17, 1897 after Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera granted amnesty to political prisoners. He immediately joined General Emilio Aguinaldo’s forces.
After the Pact of Biak na Bato was forged on Dec. 14, 1897, he went into exile with Aguinaldo in Hongkong and became part of the revolutionary junta (LEFT, photo taken in Hong Kong).
In May 1898, Lukban returned to the Philippines and resumed his involvement with the revolutionists; he was given the rank of a Colonel. On Oct. 29, 1898, General Aguinaldo appointed him Comandante Militar of the Bicol region. On December 21 of the same year, he was promoted General of Samar and Leyte.
When the Filipino-American War broke out on Feb. 4, 1899, Lukban established his arsenal in the mountains of Catbalogan and carried out guerrilla warfare.
Brig. Gen. Arthur C. MacArthur, Jr., offered $5,000 (read as "Pesos") for Lukban’s head. He was offered the position of governor of Samar under the American regime, with autonomy, if he would surrender, but he refused to accept the offer.
After his capture, the Americans asked Lukban to use his influence and convince the rest of his command to surrender. He demurred at first, but subsequently changed his mind and wrote several letters, which were sent out and carried by pro-American Filipinos.
April 26, 1902: Gen. Claro Guevarra and his men on board the U.S. Navy collier Nanshan, while being transported from the mouth of the Gandara River to Catbalogan, Samar, where they formally surrendered the following day.
Col. Claro Guevarra succeeded Lukban and forbade his men to give attention to the latter's letters. He assumed the rank of General and prepared to continue the resistance. The Americans sent peace envoys to negotiate with Guevarra. On April 26, 1902, he relented and the following day surrendered with 744 men to Brig. Gen. Frederick Dent Grant, commander of the Sixth US Infantry Brigade, at Catbalogan, Samar.
April 26, 1902: The first lighter load of guerillas under General Guevarra approaching the wharf at 4 pm; a welcome arch had been erected under which they would pass.
April 26, 1902: Gen. Claro Guevarra (LEFT) and his chief of staff, Col. Francisco Rafael, are photographed on arrival at Catbalogan, Samar.
April 26, 1902: Gen. Claro Guevarra (CENTRAL FIGURE, tallest man in front row) and his officers. His chief of staff, Col. Francisco Rafael, stands to his right. Photo taken at Catbalogan, Samar.
April 27, 1902: Gen. Claro Guevarra and Brig. Gen. Frederick Dent Grant shake hands for the camera at Catbalogan, Samar. Grant was the oldest son of Civil War general and United States President Ulysses S. Grant; he graduated from West Point in 1871.
April 27, 1902: Gen. Guevarra and his men formally surrendering at the town plaza of Catbalogan, Samar. Photo, taken at about 3:30 P.M., was published in the Detroit Free Press-Illustrated Supplement, issue of May 17, 1903.
Guevarra's entourage consisted of 65 officers, 236 riflemen and 443 boleros. A few days later, 5 more riflemen and 53 boleros also surrendered at Catbalogan. Arms and ammunition surrendered: 115 Krag rifles, 1 Krag carbine, 79 Remington rifles, 31 Mauser rifles, 14 miscellaneous guns; total, 240. Seven thousand five hundred rounds Krag cartridges, 500 miscellaneous; total, 8,000.
On May 11, 1902, 18 guerillas with 2 Remington rifles, 1 shotgun and 18 rounds of ammunition surrendered at Catbalogan. Two days later, Lt. Ignacio Alar, with 3 officers, 35 men, 12 Krag rifles, 1 Springfield rifle, 3 shotguns and 1,000 rounds of ammunition gave up at Tacloban. This last surrender accounted for every guerilla officer known then to the Americans in Samar, and for every rifle except two.
On June 17, 1902, provincial civil government was established on Samar Island by an act of the Philippine Commission.
In 1904, Lukban was arrested with two of his brothers, Justo and Cayetano, on charges of sedition filed against them by the Manila Secret Police. The Supreme Court, however, acquitted them for lack of evidence.
In 1912, Lukban ran for Governor in Tayabas and although not a native of the place, won handily (His mother, though, was born in Lucban, Tayabas). He was reelected for another term in 1916 but died on November 16 of the same year.
Miguel Malvar and his wife Paula Maloles (seated, left) and mother-in-law, late 1880's.
General Miguel Malvar (LEFT, in 1902) was born on Sept 27, 1865 in Santo Tomas, Batangas Province, to a wealthy sugarcane and rice farming family. He was one of the generals exiled with Emilio Aguinaldo to Hongkong as a result of the Pact of Biyak-na-Bato forged on Dec. 14, 1897 between Spain and the Filipino rebels. He was appointed treasurer of the revolution's funds. When the truce collapsed, Malvar returned to the Philippines with 2,000 rifles and 200,000 rounds of ammunition. He liberated Tayabas Province from the Spaniards on June 15, 1898.
After Aguinaldo's capture by the Americans on March 23, 1901, Malvar assumed control of all the Filipino forces. He setup his own government of the Philippine Republic, with him as supreme head and Commander-in-Chief, and waged guerilla warfare against American-held towns in Batangas.
Excerpted from: Melvin L. Severy, Gillette's Social Redemption, Herbert B. Turner & Co., Boston, 1907, p.242.
Brig. Gen. James Franklin Bell, in charge of military operations on Luzon Island, employed scorched earth tactics that took a heavy toll on Filipino guerrillas and civilians alike.
He told the New York Times on May 1, 1901, that:
"One-sixth of the natives of Luzon have either been killed or have died of the dengue fever in the last two years. The loss of life by killing alone has been great, but I think that not one man has been slain except where his death served the legitimate purposes of war. It has been necessary to adopt what other countries would probably be thought harsh measures, for the Filipino is tricky and crafty and has to be fought in his own way."
Original caption: "A capture of seventy insurgents at Quinka, Batangas Province." Photo was actually taken in the town of Cuenca in 1901. The Americans belonged to Troop K, 1st US Cavalry Regiment.
Original caption: "Another capture at Quinka". Photo, taken in 1901 at Cuenca, Batangas Province, shows soldiers of Troop K, 1st US Cavalry Regiment and Filipino POWs.
Original caption: "A capture of insurgents at Lagnas". Photo was taken in 1901 at BarrioLagnas, Bauan, Batangas Province. The Americans belonged to Troop K, 1st US Cavalry Regiment. In 1969, Lagnas became a separate municipality and renamed "San Pascual".
Original caption: "A group of natives in the interior from which we selected a fine bunch of insurgents." The men were rounded up by Troop K, 1st US Cavalry Regiment. Photo was taken in 1901 at Bauan, Batangas Province.
Filipino guns captured by soldiers of Troop K, 1st US Cavalry Regiment. These were kept in the church convent at Bauan, Batangas Province. Photo was taken in 1901.
Original caption: "After the fight of Nov. 12, 1901. Bauan. Soldiers of Troop K 1st Cav." Photo was taken at Bauan, Batangas Province. Capt. John DL Hartman and 50 troopers outflanked Filipino guerillas who waited in ambush on the Bauan-Taal road, killing 25; 2 Americans were wounded. The cavalry was tipped off by collaborators.
Original caption: "Gov'mt. issuing rice to poor people in Bauan during the concentration." Photo was taken in 1901 at Bauan, Batangas Province. The town was garrisoned by Troop K of the 1st US Cavalry Regiment.
General Bell ordered the entire population of the provinces of Batangas and Laguna to gather into small areas within the poblacion of their respective towns by Dec. 25, 1901.Barrio families had to bring clothes, food, and everything they could carry into the designated area. Everything left behind, houses, gardens, carts, poultry and animals, were burned by the U.S. Army. People found outside the concentration camps were shot.
A reconcentrado (concentration) camp for civilians at Tanauan, Batangas Province. General Bell insisted that he built these camps to "protect friendly natives from the insurgents, assure them an adequate food supply" while teaching them "proper sanitary standards." The commandant of one of the camps referred to them as the "suburbs of Hell."
Starvation and disease took the lives of thousands. Between January and April of 1902, there were 8,350 deaths out of 298,000. Some camps lost as many as 20% of the population. There was one camp that was two miles by one mile (3.2 by 1.6 km) in area. It was "home" to some 8,000 Filipinos. Men were rounded up for questioning, tortured and summarily executed.
A ROUNDUP OF FILIPINO CIVILIANS. Undated photo and location not specified. A corres- pondent to the Philadelphia Ledger wrote, "Our soldiers...have taken prisoner people who held up their hands and peacefully surrendered, and an hour later, without an atom of evidence to show that they were even insurrectos, stood them on a bridge and shot them down one by one, to drop into the water below and float down as an example to those who found their bullet riddled corpses."
American soldiers hang two Filipinos. (LEFT) The prisoners are forced up on the scaffold at gunpoint; (RIGHT) The nooses are adjusted and the Filipinos' hands are tied behind their backs. Undated photo, location not specified.
Reverend W. H. Walker received a letter from his son and showed it to the Boston Journal, which reported about it on May 5, 1902. The letter described how 1,300 prisoners were executed over a few weeks. A Filipino priest heard their confessions for several days and then he was hanged in front of them. Twenty prisoners at a time were made to dig their mass graves and then were shot. The young Walker wrote, “To keep them prisoners would necessitate the placing of the soldiers on short rations if not starving them. There was nothing to do but kill them.”
Filipino POWs in Nasugbu, Batangas Province
When an American was "murdered" in Batangas, Bell ordered his men to "by lot select a POW--preferably one from the village in which the assassination took place--and execute him."
He also rounded up the wealthy and influential residents of Batangas (ABOVE). They were packed like sardines in small rooms, measuring 15-by-30-by-6 feet, into which up to 50 of them were crammed for months. They were pressed into work gangs to burn their own homes, until they agreed to aid American forces.
Female prisoners in Batangas
Bell said, "It is an inevitable consequence of war that the innocent must generally suffer with the guilty". He reasoned that since all natives were treacherous, it was impossible to recognize "the actively bad from only the passively so."
Some estimates of civilian deaths on Luzon are as high as 100,000. Many of Malvar's officers and men gave up and collaborated with the Americans. Malvar realized that continuing the war would harm the people more.
Filipino POWs in Batangas Province. A report in the Army and Navy Journal told of 600 Filipinos penned in a building 70-by-20 feet, suffocating, starving, dying of dysentery and thirst in the brutal tropical sun.
On April 16, 1902, Malvar and his entire command surrendered to the Americans, who treated him honorably. General Bell reported that during the campaign against Malvar, US forces secured 3,561 guns and 625 revolvers, captured, or forced to surrender some eight or ten thousand "insurgents".
After his surrender, Malvar lived a quiet and comfortable life. He graciously declined the offer for him to become governor of Batangas Province. On Oct. 13, 1911, he died of a liver ailment in Manila. He was 46. His remains were brought to Santo Tomas, Batangas and was buried with high military honors. [LEFT, Malvar Monument in Santo Tomas].
James Franklin Bell was born on Jan. 9, 1856 in Shelby County, Kentucky. He graduated from West Point in 1878, finishing 38th in a class of 43. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 9th Cavalry Regiment, a black unit. While in Illinois in 1886-89, he read law and passed the Illinois bar. He participated in the Pine Ridge, South Dakota Indian campaign in 1891.
After a few months in the Philippines, Bell was promoted from Captain to Brigadier General, outranking many officers previously his senior. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions of Sept. 9, 1899 near Porac, Pampanga Province.
In 1903, General Bell assisted Secretary of War Elihu Root in developing the overall plan for the reorganization of the US Army’s educational system. He was then designated Commandant of the Infantry and Cavalry school, the Signal School, and the Staff Collegeat Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. As Commandant from 1903 to 1906, he implemented the reorganization plans and became known as the founder of the modern method of instruction in the US Army.
From April 1906 to April 1910 Bell served as Chief of Staff, US Army, with rank of Major General from June 1907 (LEFT).
E. Polk Johnson, author of "History of Kentucky and Kentuckians", published in 1912, wrote of Bell, "...his frank, open nature and sunny, warm-hearted, generous disposition have won to him a host of friends, both in the army and out of it. To such friends and to this numerous kindred and 'cousins' throughout Kentucky, his official title and trappings are of far less moment than his own loyal, lovable, big-hearted manhood, and with these, his own home people, he is even to this day simply but affectionately plain 'Frank Bell'".
Bell died in New York City on Jan. 8, 1919 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His wife, Sarah Buford Bell (1857-1943) is buried with him.
May 30, 1902: President Theodore Roosevelt addresses a vast Memorial Day crowd at Arlington Cemetery before assembled veterans and journalists.
In his "indignant" speech, Roosevelt defended the U. S. Army against charges of "cruelty" in the ongoing Philippine-American War by racializing the conflict as one being fought between the forces of "civilization" and "savagery." He dismissed the Filipinos as "Chinese half-breeds," and insisted "this is the most glorious war in our nation's history."
(LEFT), US soldiers and a native collaborator applying the "water cure" to a Filipino "insurgent". (RIGHT), Life Cartoon: European colonial powers mock the US.
In the same year, Albert Gardner, in Troop B of the 1st U.S. Cavalry, composed a would-be comic song dedicated to "water-cure" torture, sung to the tune of the Battle Hymn of the Republic:
Original caption: "Philippine Islands---A Harmless Method of Torture Alleged to Have Been Occasionally Used by Soldiers in the Philippines as one of the Necessary Accom- paniments of War." The men belonged to the 35th U.S. Volunteer Infantry Regiment commanded by Col. Edward H. Plummer, West Point Class 1877. The regiment, which mainly operated in Bulacan Province, Luzon Island, arrived in the Philippines on Nov. 6, 1899 and departed on March 15, 1901.
President Roosevelt privately assured a friend the water cure was "an old Filipino method of mild torture" and claimed when Americans administered it "nobody was seriously damaged."
The "treatment" consisted of spread-eagling a prisoner on his back, forcing his mouth open with a bamboo stick and pouring gallons of water down his throat. Helpless, the prisoner was pumped with water until his stomach was near the bursting point. Then he was questioned. If he refused to answer, an American soldier stood or kneeled on his belly, forcing the water out. One report by a U.S. soldier told how "a good heavy man" jumped on a prisoner’s belly "sending a gush of water from his mouth into the air as high as six feet."
US soldiers administering the "water cure" to a Filipino "insurgent".
This cure was repeated until the prisoner talked or died. Roughly half the Filipinos given the cure did not survive. How many Filipinos were killed by torture is not known, but the extent of the practice is documented by a letter sent home by a soldier who bragged of inflicting the water cure on 160 Filipinos, 134 of whom died. A Harvard-educated officer, 1st Lt. Grover Flint, testified before the US Senate on the routine torture of Filipino combatants and civilians. He described the “water cure” as standard US Army torture.
July 4, 1902: The 30th U.S. Infantry Regiment on parade in Manila for the Fourth of July U.S. Independence Day celebration
"Whereas, many of the inhabitants of the Philippine Archipelago were in insurrection against the authority and sovereignty of the Kingdom of Spain at diverse times from August, eighteen hundred and ninety-six, until the cession of the archipelago by that Kingdom to the United States of America, and since such cession many of the persons so engaged in insurrection have until recently resisted the authority and sovereignty of the United States; and
Whereas, the insurrection against the authority and sovereignty of the United States is now at an end, and peace has been established in all parts of the archipelago except in the country inhabited by the Moro tribes, to which this proclamation does not apply; and
Whereas, during the course of the insurrection against the Kingdom of Spain and against the Government of the United States, persons engaged therein, or those in sympathy with and abetting them, committed many acts in violation of the laws of civilized warfare, but it is believed that such acts were generally committed in ignorance of those laws, and under orders issued by the civil or insurrectionary leaders; and
Whereas, it is deemed to be wise and humane, in accordance with the beneficent purposes of the Government of the United States towards the Filipino people, and conducive to peace, order, and loyalty among them, that the doers of such acts who have not already suffered punishment shall not be held criminally responsible, but shall be relieved from punishment for participation in these insurrections , and for unlawful acts committed during the course thereof, by a general amnesty and pardon:
Now, therefore, be it known that I, Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the power and authority vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby proclaim and declare, without reservation or condition, except as hereinafter provided, a full and complete pardon and amnesty to all persons in the Philippine Archipelago who have participated in the insurrections aforesaid, or who have given aid and comfort to persons participating in said insurrections , for the offenses of treason or sedition and for all offenses political in their character committed in the course of such insurrections pursuant to orders issued by the civil or military insurrectionary authorities, or which grew out of internal political feuds or dissension between Filipinos and Spaniards or the Spanish authorities, or which resulted from internal political feuds or dissension among the Filipinos themselves, during either of said insurrections :
Provided, however, That the pardon and amnesty hereby granted shall not include such persons committing crimes since May first, nineteen hundred and two, in any province of the archipelago in which at the time civil government was established, nor shall it include such persons as have been heretofore finally convicted of the crimes of murder, rape, arson, or robbery by any military or civil tribunal organized under the authority of Spain, or of the United States of America, but special application may be made to the proper authority for pardon by any person belonging to the exempted classes, and such clemency as is consistent with humanity and justice will be liberally extended; and
Further provided, That this amnesty and pardon shall not affect the title or right of the Government of the United States, or that of the Philippine Islands, to any property or property rights heretofore used or appropriated by the military or civil authorities of the Government of the United States, or that of the Philippine Islands, organized under authority of the United States, by way of confiscation or otherwise;
Provided further, That every person who shall seek to avail himself of this proclamation shall take and subscribe the following oath before any authority in the Philippine Archipelago authorized to administer oaths, namely:
'I, ________________ , solemnly swear (or affirm) that I recognize and accept the supreme authority of the United States of America in the Philippine Islands and will maintain true faith and allegiance thereto; that I impose upon myself this obligation voluntarily, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion. So help me God.'
Given under my hand at the City of Washington this fourth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and two, and in the one hundred and twenty-seventh year of the Independence of the United States."
General Luciano San Miguel was one of only two generals of the army of the First Philippine Republic killed in action during the Philippine-American War (General Gregorio del Pilar was the other fatality). He was one of only two leading Filipino revolutionary leaders who did not accept American rule (the other was General Artemio Ricarte). And he was one of the few leading figures in all phases of the Philippine Revolution.
San Miguel ( RIGHT, photo from www.nhi.gov.ph) was born on Jan. 7, 1875 in Noveleta, Cavite Province. He joined the Katipunan in 1896 and was a colonel when the war with the Americans broke out on Feb. 4, 1899. He rose to General and saw action in central and western Luzon. He did not surrender or take the oath of allegiance to the United States.
In September 1902, he revived the Katipunan and continued to fight the guerrilla war in Bulacan and Rizal provinces. The American authorities considered San Miguel as the most serious menace to the peace of the Philippines in the years 1902 and 1903.
On Oct. 1, 1902, at a meeting of guerilla leaders presided over by General Benito Santa Ana, San Miguel was elected Supreme Commander of all existing resistance forces, following his great activity in the wilder parts of the provinces of Bulacan and Rizal. On several occasions he had surprised and destroyed detachments of the Philippine Constabulary, and his force had grown to a well-disciplined, well-armed army.
The other resistance leaders present during the meeting were: Laureano Abelino, Severo Alcantara, Anatalio Austria, Miguel Capistrano, Perfecto Dizon, Gregorio Esteban, Ismael Francisco, Carlos Gabriel, Francisco Rivera, Apolonio Samson, Marcelo Santa Ana and Julian Santos.
Philippine Constabulary troopers, circa 1901-1902
In Bulacan, in January 1903, San Miguel attacked the command of Capt. William W. Warren, and later, in February 1903, the company of Lt. G.R. Twilley. On both occasions, the Constabulary had been soundly whipped.
The month of February 1903 found every available Constabulary soldier in the Bulacan-Rizal area in the field in an attempt to locate San Miguel and destroy his force. Flying columns of Scouts and Constabulary, each one company strong, were dispatched with orders to contact his army and co-operate in massed attack upon his positions.
Photo of Philippine Scouts, circa 1903
On March 27, 1903, at Corral-na-Bato, Marikina, Rizal Province, General San Miguel's camp was surrounded and attacked by the First and Fourth Companies of the Philippine Scouts led by First Lieutenants Boss Reese and Frank Nickerson; San Miguel and 34 of his men were killed while the Scouts suffered 3 dead.
General San Miguel was respected by the army and Constabulary officers who pursued him. In 1938, Capt. Cary Crockett (LEFT) --who clashed with General San Miguel in Boso-Boso in February 1903--spoke of him as a brave man and an efficient soldier.
Vic Hurley, the aurhor of "Jungle Patrol: The Story of the Philippine Constabulary" (published 1938), wrote:
"With the passing of San Miguel, the final heartbeat of the Philippine Insurrection sounded. His death was followed by the surrender of many minor leaders, and never again was theUnited States to encounter resistance from any legitimate leader. San Miguel must be rated a sincere insurgent and not a bandit. The leaders who followed him were bandits."
Simeon Ola, a native of Guinobatan, Albay Province, was the last Filipino general to surrender to the Americans, although the latter classified him as a bandit leader, as they did other Filipinos who continued resisting after the US declared the Filipino-American war officially over on July 4, 1902.
On Sept. 22, 1898, less than 5 months before the outbreak of the Fil-Am war on Feb. 4, 1899, the provincial revolutionary government of Albay was formed, with Anaceto Solano as provincial president. Maj. Gen. Vito Belarmino, appointed military commander, reorganized the Filipino army in the province, with Ola serving as a Major.
The Americans set up a civil government in Albay on April 22, 1901, and Belarmino surrendered on July 4 of the same year. But Ola, with a thousand men, continued to defy American authority. He launched guerrilla raids on towns garrisoned by combined Philippine Constabulary, Philippine Scouts, and elements of the US Army.
Colorized photo was taken in the early 1900s.
Ola's attacks in Albay caused an estimated $6,000,000 losses for the US-controlled hemp industry. Col. Harry H. Bandholtz, CO of the Philippine Constabulary in the Bicol region, employed 12 companies of Scout soldiers and an equal number of Constabulary against Ola.
Ola finally surrendered on Sept. 25, 1903 along with about 1,500 men. He showed Bandholtz an electric light bulb; it served as his personal "anting-anting" (amulet). He explained its virtues as follows: "It has always been a sure warning of the presence of American troops near by. When I grasp it in my hand and the wires tremble, I know that the Americans are very near." Bandholtz jokingly offered the suggestion that the hand trembled to shake the wires because the Americans were near.
Some of Ola's men were tried under the vagrancy law and given road-work sentences of 6 months to 2 years. About 60 were sentenced to Bilibid Prison in Manila for sedition, and 12 were hanged. When Ola turned state's evidence he was given a 30-year suspended sentence.
Ola (RIGHT) became the first mayor of Guinobatan, serving for 2 consecutive terms.
Camp Simeon Ola (formerly Camp Ibalon), Philippine National Police Regional Office V headquarters in Legaspi City, was named after the Bicolano General on June 24, 1991. Camp Ibalon was called Regan Barracks when it was set up by US army soldiers under Brig. Gen. William Kobbe on Jan. 23, 1900. The Philippine Constabulary, organized in 1901, later took over the camp.
June 10, 1903: Colonel Faustino Guillermo is captured by Philippine Constabulary troops commanded by a Captain Teong
Faustino Guillermo was born in 1860 in Sampaloc, Manila. As a Katipunero, he fought alongside Andres Bonifacio. He surrendered to the Americans at Malabon in 1900. Shortly after taking the oath of allegiance to the United States, he established himself at San Francisco del Monte, Morong Province (renamed "Rizal Province" in 1901) and began recruiting men to continue the resistance against American rule. Guillermo was arrested there in 1901 by the Filipino police of Sampaloc. After three months' imprisonment, he was freed by Lieutenant Lucien Sweet of the municipal secret police, who appointed him as a police informer.
The old church at San Francisco del Monte, circa late 1890's or early 1900's
Upon his release, Guillermo returned to San Francisco del Monte and resumed recruitment work for the resistance. He was re-arrested by the Philippine Constabulary (PC) and placed under the custody of Inspector Licerio Geronimo in San Mateo, Rizal Province.(Geronimo commanded the Filipino troops that killed Maj. Gen. Henry W. Lawton at the Battle of San Mateo on Dec. 19, 1899; he surrendered to the Americans on March 30, 1901; he was among a handful of Filipinos admitted into the officer ranks of the colonial Philippine Constabulary).
Geronimo (RIGHT, image courtesy of Macky Hosalla) compelled Guillermo to act as a spy for him. Captain Keithley of the PC then ordered his release.
He went to the mountains and commenced to recruit men, inviting his friends and acquaintances to join him in fighting the Americans. They wandered about the woods, going from Rizal to Bulacan and vice versa, living upon food given them by the people of thebarrios.
In early 1902, he joined the forces of General Luciano San Miguel who gave him the rank of Lieutenant Colonel (promoted to Colonel in January 1903). They operated in the provinces of Rizal and Bulacan. Guillermo figured in at least 15 skirmishes with the Philippine Constabulary and Philippine Scouts.
He permitted spies to penetrate his camps. However, before the infiltrators got the chance to report to their American bosses, he unmasked and buried them up to their necks, their heads and faces exposed to the painful bites of huge red ants (hamtik).
On July 15, 1902, Inspector Licerio Geronimo, who was scouting in the Diliman country with seven men (Diliman is now a part of Quezon City), was surprised in a house where he and his men were resting, by Faustino Guillermo and Apolonio Samson with about 25 men, and narrowly escaped capture, after having one of his men killed and another seriously wounded. Geronimo also lost 3 horses, with their trappings and saddles, his uniform, hat and shoes, and escaped in his undershirt and drawers.
In the evening, Guillermo made good use of Geronimo's PC outfit. He wore it when he entered the PC garrison of 16 men in San Jose, Bulacan; the unsuspecting garrison commander, a Sergeant Omano, obeyed Guillermo's order and formed the detachment into arms. At this juncture, Guillermo's men rushed in and took all the constables prisoners and secured their firearms. One of the constables defected to Guillermo's band.
Photo taken in 1904
On March 27, 1903, at Corral-na-Bato, Marikina, Rizal Province, Guillermo and General San Miguel were surrounded and attacked by the First and Fourth Companies of the Philippine Scouts led by First Lieutenants Boss Reese and Frank Nickerson; San Miguel and 34 of his men were killed while the Scouts suffered 3 dead. Guillermo and other survivors escaped to Mt. Laniting, near Boso-Boso (now asitio of Barangay San Jose, Antipolo City).
Issue of June 12, 1903, Page 1
On June 10, 1903 Colonel Guillermo was captured by the Philippine Constabulary. He was charged and convicted of bandolerismo (brigandage). On Oct. 24, 1903, he was sentenced to death by the Court of First Instance of the Province of Rizal.
On April 12, 1904, the Supreme Court of the Philippines headed by Cayetano S. Arellano (LEFT), a Filipino and the first Chief Justice, affirmed the judgment of the lower court; also concurring were Filipino associate justices Florentino Torres and Victorino Mapa, and American associate justice Joseph Cooper. The lone dissenter was American associate justice John Mcdonough who recommended the commutation of the death sentence to life imprisonment. (Arellano and Torres were among the founders of the pro-American Partido Federal on Dec. 23, 1900).
On May 20, 1904, Colonel Guillermo died at the gallows in Pasig, Rizal. He was 44 years old and a widower.
1907 Photo. L to R, seated: Julian Montalan, Francisco Carreon, Macario Sakay and Leon Villafuerte; L to R, standing: Benito Natividad and Lucio de Vega
Filipino resistance to American rule did not end with the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo on March 23, 1901. There were numerous resistance forces fighting for independence until 1910. One of these forces was led by Macario Sakay who established the "Republika ng Katagalugan" ( literally, "Tagalog Republic", but by "Katagalugan", Sakay meant the entire Philippines, and not only the Tagalog-speaking provinces; he and his men were loathed to use "Philippines", which was named after King Philip of Spain).
He was born on Tabora St. in 1870 in Tondo, Manila, it is presumed, out of wedlock since Sakay was his mother's family name. He worked as an apprentice in a kalesa (a horse drawn carriage) manufacturing shop and as a tailor.
A Filipino theater in Manila, circa 1898.
Sakay also acted in komedyas and moro-moros, which were stage plays named for their depiction of Christian/Muslim conflict. During this time, it can be safely assumed that he met Bonifacio who was also from Tondo and acted in moro-moros as well.
In 1894, Sakay joined the Dapitan, Manila branch of the Katipunan. Sakay fought side by side with Bonifacio in the hills of Morong (now Rizal) Province. Captured by the Americans and amnestied in July 1902, Sakay established the Republika ng Katagalugan in the mountains of Southern Tagalog. He operated in the provinces of Morong, Laguna, Cavite, and Tayabas (now Quezon). His headquarters was first in Mt. Cristobal, Tayabas, and later transferred in the mountains of Morong.
This vest with all its religious figures and Latin phrases belonged to Macario Sakay. It was his "anting-anting" (amulet) and he believed it protected him from bullets and other hazards of war. Many Filipinos who participated in the fight against Spain and theUnited States used anting-antings of all types for personal protection.
Sakay and many of his followers favored long hair, something strange for his era. This affectation was exploited by the Americans in their efforts to portray Sakay and his men as wild bandits. The Tagalog Republic enjoyed the support of the Filipino masses in Morong, Laguna, Batangas, and Cavite. The Philippine Constabulary continually complained of municipal authorities cooperating and abetting Sakay.
Sakay taxed merchants, farmers, and laborers ten percent of their income. He ordered those who could pay but refused to do so to be arrested and put to work. Suspected informers were liquidated, tortured or had their ears and lips cut off as a warning to others.
A company of the Philippine Constabulary . Photo taken in the early 1900's.
The Philippine Constabulary and the U.S. Army employed "hamletting" or reconcentration in areas where Sakay received strong assistance. This cruel counter-insurgency technique proved disastrous for the Filipino masses. The forced movement and reconcentration of a large number of people caused the outbreak of diseases such as cholera and dysentery. Food was scarce in the camps, resulting in numerous deaths.
Philippine Constabulary troops, circa 1906
The Philippine Constabulary relentlessly operated search and destroy missions in an attempt to suppress Sakay's forces.
A unit of the Moro Constabulary in Zamboanga, Mindanao Island, circa 1906
The Muslim Moro Constabulary was brought in from Mindanao Island; Bloodhounds from California were imported to pursue Sakay and his men.
On Jan. 31, 1905 the writ of habeas corpus was suspended in the provinces of Cavite and Batangas.
In mid-1906, Governor-General Henry Clay Ide (LEFT) wrote Sakay and promised that if he and his men surrendered, they would be amnestied. The letter was read by Dominador Gomez, a popular labor leader and politician, to Leon Villafuerte, one of Sakay's generals.
Gomez advised Villafuerte to assure Sakay that a Philippine Assembly comprised of Filipinos will be formed to serve as the "gate of kalayaan.(freedom)." His surrender was necessary to establish a state of peace that was a prerequisite for the election of Filipino delegates to the Philippine Assembly. Gomez acted as the intermediary in the succeeding negotiations.
Issue of June 16, 1906
On June 16, 1906 Sakay took the bait, went down to Manila from the hills of Tanay, Morong, and surrendered to Col. Harry H. Bandholtz, Director of the First Constabulary District. Sakay and his men were followed by a brass band and hundreds of townspeople shouting "Long Live Sakay! Long Live the Patriots!"
Sakay viewed his surrender not as capitulation but as a genuine step towards independence. He believed that the struggle had shifted to constitutional methods and that through the Philippine Assembly, the Filipinos could win their independence.
On July 17, 1906, Sakay and his staff attended a dance hosted by Col. Louis J. Van Schaick, acting governor of Cavite. Just before midnight, they were arrested.
On Aug. 22, 1906 Sakay, Francisco Carreon, Lucio De Vega, Cornelio Felizardo, Julian Montalan and Leon Villafuerte were arraigned in the sala of Judge Ignacio Villamor and accused of bandolerismo under the Brigandage Act of Nov. 12, 1902, which interpreted all acts of armed resistance to American rule as banditry.
The specific charges against Sakay and his men were robbery in band, murder, rape, arson and kidnapping.
During the trial, Dominador Gomez (RIGHT, in 1907) was not around to produce the letter from the American governor-general. He did not even show up and the letter had mysteriously disappeared. (Gomez won a seat in the First Philippine Assembly).
Judge Villamor (LEFT) convicted all the men as charged; Sakay and De Vega were sentenced to be hanged, and the rest were sentenced to life in prison.
[Ignacio Villamor was born on Feb.1,1863, in Bangued, Abra. He completed his Law Course at the University of Santo Tomas in 1893. In 1898, he represented Ilocos Sur in the Malolos Congress and helped draw up a constitution for the First Philippine Republic. He was a founding member of the pro-American Partido Federalwhen it was organized on Dec. 23, 1900. Under the American regime, he served as judge, Attorney-General, the first Filipino executive secretary, the first Filipino President of the University of the Philippines (appointed June 7, 1915), and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court (appointed May 19, 1920). He died on May 23, 1933].
New-York Tribune, July 27, 1907, Page 3
On July 26, 1907, the death sentences on Sakay and De Vega were affirmed by the Supreme Court of the Philippines headed by Cayetano S. Arellano.
The "Presidio de Manila", more popularly known as the Carcel de Bilibid or Bilibid Prison, as it looked in 1899; the American-run prison was crammed with "brigandage" suspects, with a soaring death from overcrowding and malnourishment in these years, 72 per 1,000 in 1902, 99 per 1,000 in 1903, 118 per 1,000 in 1904, and by September 1905, 438 per 1,000. The prison is still operational as of the early 21st century and is known as "Manila City Jail".
On Friday, 9:00 am, Sept. 13, 1907, at the Bilibid Prison in Manila, Lucio de Vega ascended the scaffold first. "We are members of the revolutionary force that defended our country, the Philippines. We are the true Katipuneros!" He shouted moments before the hangman's noose was placed around his neck.
He was followed by Macario Sakay who paused briefly and said these parting words:
"Death comes to all of us sooner or later, so I will face the Lord Almighty calmly. But I want to tell you that we were not bandits and robbers, as the Americans have accused us, but members of the revolutionary force that defended our mother country, Filipinas! Farewell! Long live the republic and may our independence be born in the future! Farewell! Long live Filipinas!"
The US Army hangs two Filipinos. Photo taken in the early 1900's.
Three "Ladrones" (bandits) are about to be hanged in Tayabas Province (now Quezon). The Brigandage Act of 1902 interpreted all acts of armed resistance to American rule as banditry. PHOTO was taken in the early 1900s.
The three "Ladrones" in preceding photo are dead, after the drop.
Manila Grand Opera House on Calle Dulumbayan (renamed Rizal Avenue in 1911), Sta. Cruz district, Manila, where the First Philippine Assembly was inaugurated on Oct. 16, 1907. An election was held on July 31, 1907. The qualified voters were severely limited to those who owned real property worth five hundred pesos; could write and read; and could speak Spanish or English. Only about 1.41 % of the population voted.
The First Philippine Assembly: Of the 80 elected delegates, 79 were present during the inauguration. The first session was actually held at the Ayuntamiento de Manila in Intramuros district in the afternoon of the same day. The Ayuntamiento was a two-storey building occupying half a block near the Manila Cathedral. The Assembly was the lower house (all Filipino members), and the Philippine Commission (all Americans) served as the upper house. The all Filipino Assembly seemed to be a promise of independence from the Americans. Closer to the truth was that it was meant to pacify into colonial contentment a people fresh from a losing war of liberation.
1st commanding general of the Philippine army: March 22, 1897 to Jan 22, 1899. Born on Oct 20, 1866 in Batac, Ilocos Norte. His original surname was “Dodon,” the Ilocano word for “grasshopper.”
He graduated from the Colegio de San Juan de Letran with a Bachelor of Arts degree. He took up teaching at the Universidad de Santo Tomas and then at the Escuela Normal de Manila.
He supervised a primary school in San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias, Cavite). He embraced freemasonry and was made a master mason in September 1896. He joined the Katipunan in Cavite and adopted the name Vibora (viper).
Ricarte (LEFT, in 1898 photo) operated in Cavite, Laguna and Batangas. Aguinaldo ordered him to remain in Biyak na Bato, San Miguel, Bulacan to supervise the surrender of arms and to see to it that the Spanish government complied with the terms of the Biyak na Bato peace pact of Dec. 14, 1897.
Aguinaldo renewed the revolution upon his return from exile in Hong Kong on May 19, 1898.
On June 2, 1898, at San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias), Cavite Province, Ricarte accepted the surrender of General Leopoldo Garcia Peña, the Spanish commanding general in Cavite, who gave up with 2,800 men.
When the Fil-Am War started on Feb. 4, 1899, he was Chief of Operations of the Filipino forces in the second zone around Manila. In June 1900 he and some of his men sneaked into Manila, intending to organize the populace for an uprising. On July 1, 1900 Ricarte was arrested at the foot of the Paco bridge. He was confined at the American military headquarters on Anda street in Intramuros, Manila.
Original caption: "Insurgent leaders deported to Guam"
On Jan. 16, 1901, Ricarte was put on the USS Rosecrans and deported to Guam, along with the following 31 military officers and civilians: GENERALS Francisco de losSantos, Pio del Pilar, Maximino Hizon and Mariano Llanera; COLONELS Lucas Camerino, Esteban Consortes, Macario de Ocampo and Julian Gerona; LT. COLONELS Mariano Barroga, Pedro Cubarrubias, Hermogenes Plata and Cornelio Requestis; MAJOR Fabian Villaruel; SUBORDINATE ARMY OFFICERS Igmidio de Jesus, Jose Mata, Alipio Tecson and Juan Leandro Villarino; CIVILIANS Lucino Almeida, Pio Barican, Jose Buenaventura, Anastacio Carmona, Bartolome de la Rosa, Norberto Dimayuga, Doroteo Espina, Silvestre Legaspi, Apolinario Mabini, Juan Mauricio, Pablo Ocampo, Antonio Prisco Reyes, Simon Tecson and Maximino Trias.
[On Jan. 24, 1901, an additional 11 men from Ilocos Norte, described by the Americans as "insurgent abettors, sympathizers and agitators", were loaded on the USS Solace and also deported to Guam. They were: Faustino Adiarte, Pancracio Adiarte, Florencio Castro, Inocente Cayetano, Gavino Domingo, Pedro Erando, Leon Flores, Jaime Morales, Pancracio Palting, Marcelo Quintos and Roberto Salvante.]
In response to public demand in the US, Ricarte (RIGHT, in 1898) and others were allowed to leave Guam. They arrived in Manila on the U.S. transport Thomas on Feb. 26, 1903. Ricarte was the only one who refused to take the oath of allegiance to the US. He was transported to Hong Kong and there kept under the surveillance of American agents. His mail address in Hong Kong was "U.G. Viper, Esq., Ripon Terrace, Bonham Road". Jointly with Manuel Ruiz Prin, he established the United Democratic Filipino Republican Committee.
He slipped back to the Philippines on Dec. 25, 1903 hoping to rekindle the Revolution; the Americans offered a reward of $10,000 for information leading to his capture, dead or alive.
A company of the Philippine Constabulary. Photo taken between 1906 and 1910.
Ricarte was arrested by the Philippine Constabulary on May 29, 1904 at the cockpit in Mariveles, Bataan Province, where he had gone to meet some co-conspirators. He was then acting as a clerk for a Justice of the Peace under the name of "Jose Garcia". He was denounced by Luis Baltazar, a clerk of the Court of First Instance in Bataan.
American photographer's caption: "Ricarte--'The Viper'--Now doing 6 years in Bilibid". "THE only free Filipino," a journalist wrote in describing General Artemio Ricarte during the American rule in the country. To the very end, Ricarte remained true to his vow never to take the oath of allegiance to the United States.
The "Presidio de Manila", more popularly called the Carcel de Bilibid or Bilibid Prison. Photo taken in 1902.
Ricarte was brought to Manila and conducted into the sala of Judge Manuel Araullo (LEFT, in 1922). He was charged and found guilty of illegal possession of firearms and conspiracy. Judge Araullo sentenced him to six years' solitary confinement in prison and to pay a fine of $10,000.
(Araullo was a founding member of the pro-American Partido Federal when it was organized on Dec. 23, 1900. He later served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from Nov. 1, 1921 until his death on July 26, 1924. Manuel Araullo High School in Manila and Araullo University in Nueva Ecija were named in his honor).
Colorized photo of the Carcel de Bilibid or Bilibid Prison, taken in the early 1900's. Officially named Carcel y Presidio Correccional (Correctional Jail and Military Prison), it was established on June 25, 1865 under a Spanish royal decree. In 1940 the prisoners, equipment and facilities were transferred to a new prison in Muntinlupa, Rizal Province, called "The New Bilibid Prison". The old facility is still being used by the City of Manila as its detention center, known as Manila City Jail.
Ricarte served his sentence at the Bilibid Prison in Manila until his release on June 26, 1910. As soon as he stepped out of Bilibid, he was met and detained by several American police agents and brought to the Bureau of Customs. He was asked to swear allegiance to the US; he declined and he was once more deported to Hong Kong.
While in Hong Kong, Ricarte published a magazine entitled "El Grito del Presente" (Cry of the Present).
In May 1911, he married Agueda Esteban (LEFT, in old age) who had gone to Hong Kong the previous year; she was the widow of Lt. Col. Mariano Barroga, a Katipunero and later an officer in the Philippine Republican Army, and Ricarte's fellow deportee to Guam (Colonel Barroga died in November 1902). Ricarte, Agueda and stepdaughter Salud lived on Lamma Island and later inKowloon.
In 1913, to dissociate the country from its colonial heritage, Ricarte (RIGHT, ca 1910's), proposed that the Philippines, which was named after King Philip of Spain, be renamed “Rizaline Islands” in honor of national hero Jose Rizal and Filipinos, “Rizalines”.
In 1915, during World War I, the British government removed all political exiles from Hong Kong. The Ricartes were shipped to Shanghai and from there, toJapan. They resided in Aichiken, then Tokyo, where Ricarte made his living by teaching Spanish at the Kaigai Shokumin Gakko (Overseas School).
Artemio Ricarte (standing, 3rd from left), his wife Agueda Esteban (standing, 2nd from right), and Filipino acquaintances in front of Ricarte's restaurant, Karihan Luvimin. SOURCE: Ambeth Ocampo's album "History."
In April 1923, they moved to Yokohama. They lived at 149 Yamashita-cho, Yokohama. Ricarte put up a restaurant whose earnings allowed the family to live in comfort.
Nov. 15, 1935: Inauguration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
At the inauguration of the Philippine Commonwealth on Nov. 15, 1935, the giant Philippine flag, made of Japanese silk, was a gift from General Artemio Ricarte, who was still in exile in Japan. His gift of the Philippine flag was a token of solidarity with his countrymen as they embarked on full autonomy, the penultimate step to independence.
Artemio Ricarte and his wife Agueda, photo taken in Manila during the Japanese occupation.
Ricarte collaborated with the Japanese during World War II; on Dec. 21, 1941 they flew him back to the Philippines, via Aparri, Cagayan---he was then 75 years old.
On Feb. 16, 1942, Time Magazine reported: "Old General Artemio Ricarte y Vibora drove proudly about Manila in a sleek limousine, with a spluttering escort of Jap motorcycle guards."
On Oct 14, 1943, he and Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo raised the Filipino flag during the inauguration of the Japanese-sponsored "Second PhilippineRepublic".
Ricarte was not given a high position by the Japanese because of his advanced age. He toured the provinces and promoted cooperation with Japan [RIGHT].
The Americans returned on Oct. 20, 1944, initially smashing Japanese forces on Leyte Island. They proved unstoppable from then on.
On Dec. 8, 1944, Ricarte (LEFT, in Japanese military garb) and Benigno Ramos organized a quisling militia, the Makapili (Makabayan Katipunan ng mga Pilipino) or "Alliance of Patriotic Filipinos", which eventually numbered 5000 strong. It assisted the Japanese in anti-guerilla operations. Roundups of suspected American agents intensified, and there were lineups at which hooded Makapilis denounced suspects who were then imprisoned and tortured in the dungeons of Fort Santiago. Only a few survived the ordeal.
In January 1945, when General Tomoyuki Yamashita was preparing to abandon Manila, Japanese officials offered to evacuate him to Japan. Ricarte declined. He said: "I cannot take refuge in Japan at this critical moment when my people are in direct distress. I will stay in my Motherland to the last."
He fled with Japanese forces under Yamashita into the mountains of northern Luzon.
Without his knowing it, the Japanese executed some 20 of his relatives because the Japanese feared that they knew too much. His own grandson, Besulmino Romero, would have been executed, too, had he not understood what the Japanese were saying and pleaded with them to spare his life,
Hungduan Rice Terraces: The rice terraces in Hungduan have been inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List as a cultural Landscape. This confirms the exceptional universal value of the rice terraces as a cultural landscape which deserves protection for the benefit of all humanity
Ricarte and Yamashita's army held out in the scenic, highland town of Hungduan, Ifugao Province (then a part of Mountain Province). Ricarte was afflicted with dysentery and with very little to eat, he fell seriously ill and died on July 31, 1945 at the age of 78. He was originally buried on the slopes of Mt. Napulawan. (Yamashita surrendered on Sept. 2, 1945 in Kiangan, Ifugao).
General Ricarte's remains now lie at the Libingan ng mga Bayani ("Cemetery of Heroes"), Fort Bonifacio, Taguig, Metro Manila.
The corvette BRP Artemio Ricarte (PS37) was named in the hero's honor by the Philippine Navy. She was originally called HMS Starling of the Hong Kong Squadron of the British Royal Navy. The ship was built by Hall Russell in the United Kingdom and was commissioned into Her Majesty's British Royal Navy service in 1984. The corvette was sold to the Philippines and turned over to the Philippine Navy on August 1, 1997 when Hong Kong was ceded back to China.
The severity with which the inhabitants have been dealt would not look well if a complete history of it were written out.1
So wrote Philippine Commissioner William Howard Taft concerning the U.S. Army's campaign on the island of Marinduque during the Philippine War of 1899-1902. The pacification of Marinduque was characterized by extensive devastation and marked one of the earliest employments of population concentration in the Philippine War, techniques that would eventually be used on a much larger scale in the two most famous campaigns of the war, those of Brigadier Generals J. Franklin Bell in Batangas and Jacob H. Smith in Samar. This article provides the first detailed account of the story that Taft, the future governor of the Philippines and President of the United States, had felt was best left untold.
was aiding the guerrillas, and upon returning to Santa Cruz be sent a gunboat to Luzon to request reinforcements. 13