BATTLES OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
The pictures that captured a nation at war: Civil War photographer's iconic photos from the front line show America's darkest days
Battlefield of Gettysburg: Dead Confederate sharpshooter at foot of Little Round Top taken on July 1863. Alexander Gardner, from Paisley, Renfrewshire, risked his life to capture the American Civil War on film but was robbed of most of the credit by his employer.
The Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter: Gardner has been accused of moving the corpses and weapons in some of his images for dramatic effect. He is alleged to have altered the position of this dead sniper to create a better image. It is still one of his most famous
As the 150th anniversary of the end of the war draws nearer, a new book giving an incredible account of the pioneer's work is set to finally give him the recognition he deserves.
Author Keith Steiner, from Banff, Aberdeenshire, said yesterday (Tue): 'I wanted to right an injustice.
Most of the photos you see of the American Civil War were taken either by Gardner or his Scottish contemporaries but he was the greatest of them all. He was never given the credit.
At the Gallows: Lincoln conspirators hang. Mary Surratt (hanging, far left) and three of the other convicted conspirators in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln on July 7 1865. Her last words were, 'Please don't let me fall'.
Victims of war: Dead Confederate artillery men lie dead around their battery after the Battle of Antietam. Gardner's pictures have been showcased in a new book
History remembered: The spot were the famous image of Dead Confederate artillery men, as they lay around their battery after the Battle of Antietam, was taken
'When I was a teenager I found his photographs quite an eye-opener; they had quite an impact on me.
DID GARDNER MOVE HIS CORPSES TO CREATE BETTER PICTURES?
Gardner has come under fire for staging some of his most iconic images for dramatic effect by moving corpses and weapons for a better picture.
One of his most famous photographs, 'Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter', has been argued to be one such fabrication.
Critics, having compared it to other images, claim he moved the body some 40 yards into the more photogenic surroundings of the Devil's Den to create a better composition (see the two pictures below).
However, others have argued that that the manipulation of photographic settings in the early years of photography was not frowned upon and in no way detracts from his achievements as a photographer.
Is this the same soldier?
'I retired as a teacher and had an opportunity to explore the sites where he took his photographs.
'They were a sensation at the time and I believe the photographs have relevance in modern times.'
Gardner was born in Paisley in 1821 and trained as a jeweller before moving into the world of newspapers.
An idealist and socialist, he formed the left-leaning newspaper the Glasgow Sentinel in 1851.
His keen interest in photography led to him emigrating across the pond in the hope of furthering his career.
He was headhunted by Brady and at the outbreak of the war was well-positioned in Washington.
He was recruited as a staff photographer by General George B. McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, and made history on 19 September 1862 when he took the first photographs of casualties on the battlefield at Antietam.
In 1863, Gardner split from Brady and formed his own gallery in Washington with his brother James.
In July of that year, he photographed the aftermath of the Battle of Gettysburg, developing images in his travelling darkroom.
Retired teacher Keith, 60, said: 'Gardner was essentially a photojournalist.
'He had to process and develop the photographs on the move and in the middle of a battlefield which was not easy.
'He was highly regarded and Walt Whitman once said that he 'saw beyond his camera'.
'I wanted to assert his prominence in the history of photographers.
'He is overlooked and most of my Scottish colleagues have never heard of him. That's a big problem.
'As a Scotsman, he was a pioneer.
'He was an artist, in some ways a scientist and a publisher. He was the complete package.'
Gardner was also the official photographer to President Abraham Lincoln.
He captured him seven times, including before his inauguration in March 1861 and in February 1865, just weeks before he was assassinated.
The war-time leader personally visited Gardner to have his photograph taken every year instead of the Scotsman visiting the White House.
Keith said: 'Most of the photographs you see of Lincoln were taken by Gardner and chart how he aged physically.
'He was pictured in 1861 then a few years later and it is like a different man.
'In February 1865, he is a broken man and has aged about 20 years through the stress of the civil war.
'It is an incredibly revealing photograph.'
Gardner died in Washington DC in 1882 and is buried there.
Soldiers line up for battle: As the 150th anniversary of the end of the war draws nearer, a new book giving an incredible account of the pioneer's work is set to finally give him the recognition he deserves
Photographer to the President: Gardner, left, was also the official photographer to President Abraham Lincoln, picturing him seven times, including this portrait, right, taken in February 1865, just weeks before he was assassinated
President Abraham Lincoln delivering second inaugural address in front of the United States Capitol, March 4, 1865
Fog of war: Three horse-drawn covered wagons trundle past soldiers marching in formation between rows of small cabins and tents.
Wounded animals: A horse lies dying at the Battle of Antietam. Gardner was born in Paisley in 1821 and trained as a jeweller before moving into the world of newspapers
President Lincoln with Gen. George B. McClellan and group of officers (October 1862) in Antietam. For his portraits, though, the war-time leader personally visited Gardner to have his photograph taken every year instead of the Scotsman visiting the White House
Keith began work on his book 'In the Footsteps of Alexander Gardner at Antietam and Gettysburg' after retiring in 2008.
As part of his research, he travelled to the USA to visit the bloody battlefields which his unsung hero had photographed.
He also recreated some of the historic images, highlighting that not much has changed.
Keith added: 'It was an absolute privilege to stand on the same sites that Gardner photographed.
Shadows and dust: Site of the Battle of Antietam today. Gardner made history on 19 September 1862 when he took the first photographs of casualties on the battlefield at Antietam
Civil War photographer Mathew Brady largely taught himself the finer points of the two pursuits that have linked his name to history: taking pictures and self-promotion. The son of Irish immigrant farmers had a talent for cajoling presidents, generals and business leaders to sit before his camera.
Other than his birth around 1823 in Warren County, N.Y., little is recorded about Brady's early life, a challenge for biographer Robert Wilson. Yet readers of 'Mathew Brady: Portraits of a Nation' probably benefit from this dearth of personal information.
Wilson moves quickly to what matters most - Brady's role in how we see America in the mid- to late 19th century.
War photographer Matthew Brady, the son of Irish immigrant farmers had a talent for cajoling presidents, generals and business leaders to sit before his camera
Time warp: A portrait of Captain A.B. Weeden, 1st Rhode Island Light Artillery, and his servant Tommy Hickey in camp at Miner's Hill, Virginia, in the winter of 1861-1862
Timing was on Brady's side when, as a teenager, he left the countryside for the big city around 1840. The early photographic process called daguerreotype, invented in Paris, arrived in New York just ahead of him.
He may have taken lessons in the technique while supporting himself as a clerk at a fabric store.
Wilson makes a compelling case that Brady eventually rose above a sea of artistic entrepreneurs offering photographic portraits because he learned, and often advanced, the latest techniques. As important, he had a pleasing manner that put subjects at ease during the time-consuming process of getting a picture taken.
Heroic: Mathew Brady studio portrait of Colonel Oliver O. Howard, a Federal officer who won the Medal of Honor for his bravery during the Battle of Seven Pines in 1862
Vengeful: portrait of Sergeant Francis Edwin Brownell, an enlisted man in Elmer Ellsworth's New York Fire Zouaves - who witnessed Ellsworth's death and immediately killed the assailant
Future president: James A. Garfield, who would be the 20th president of the United States, and was assassinated after only six months in office in 1881, as a Union Army general, ca. 1855-1865
Brady also understood how publicity worked back then. The Hall of Fame in his Broadway studio featured a gallery of celebrities - a subtle pitch for others to pay a few dollars for portraits of their own.
Few would not want to sit for the studio that photographed war heroes like Gen. Winfield Scott, naturalist and painter John James Audubon and the elderly former first lady Dolley Madison.
General Hugh Judson "Kill Cavalry" Kilpatrick (1836-1881), a Union officer noted for his ill-conceived cavalry raids into Confederate held territory during the American Civil War
Top o' the mornin' to ya: A portrait of Brigadier General Thomas Francis Meagher (1823-1867), commander of Meagher's Irish Brigade (Second Brigade, First Division, Second Army Corps, Army of the Potomac) during the American Civil War
In 1849, President James K. Polk allowed Brady to take his photograph in the White House, as did his successor, Zachary Taylor, a sign of Brady's growing reputation.
A decade later, when the nation seemed destined to fracture over slavery, Brady was, as Wilson puts it, at the 'height of his fame as a photographer of celebrities'.
War photographer Brady, pictured left in early June, 1864, in Virginia, with Major General Ambrose Everett Burnside (left) at 9th Army Corps headquarters at Cold Harbor, Virginia
On the front line: Abraham Lincoln, left, sits in his tent with one of his generals during the Civil War
Military base: A federal encampment at Cumberland Landing on the Virginia Peninsula, in May 1862, photographed by James F. Gibson
His 1860 photograph of a beardless Abraham Lincoln - Brady pulled up the collars on Lincoln's shirt and coat, probably to hide his long neck - helped to make the presidential aspirant known around the country.
The Civil War created a strong demand for photographs of soldiers in studio settings and in encampments. The custom of the time was for the studio's owner to take the credit, not those working in the studio or in the field.
While Brady shared credit with his photographers some of the time and traveled to battlefields such as Gettysburg, his name is associated with many photographs he didn't take.
A Matthew Brady portrait of of General Robert E. Lee (center) and his aides-de-camp, Major General George Washington Custis Lee (left) and Col. Walter Taylor (right), taken in Richmond, Virginia, on April 16, 1865
Brady's experience at Bull Run - he lost his equipment in the chaotic retreat that marked the North's first major battle - may have cooled his eagerness to ask those working for him to photograph close to actual fighting.
As the war continued, photographic images of dead soldiers, slain horses and other post-battle carnage brought to the public a face of war most had never seen.
A 1862 photograph of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln by Mathew Brady
Tragic: James A. Garfield, who would be the 20th president of the United States, and was assassinated after only six months in office in 1881, with his daughter, ca. 1865, photographed by Mathew Brady
Leader: Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858), the man was known to have 'opened Japan' pictured by Matthew Brady in the late 1850s
Portrait of Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Von Helmholtz (1821-1894), German physicist, anatomist, and physiologist. One of the founders of the principle of conservation of energy; inventor of the opthhalmoscope. Engraving by T. Johnson, from an 1893 photograph by Mathew Brady
Studio portrait of Major General William Tecumseh Sherman (182-1891) in Washington, 1865, by Matthew Brady. Sherman is considered one of the ablest Union Generals of the American Civil War
The snapper: War Photographer Mathew Brady became a successful and sought after photographer for the country's presidents and colonels
Wilson argues that Brady's role in promoting wartime images through his studios and the print media was crucial to their impact even if he wasn't the man behind the camera.
With Wilson's keen analysis of Brady's life and times and the images that defined them, 'Mathew Brady: Portraits of a Nation' brings into sharp focus a fascinating footnote to American history.
A delegation of visiting Sioux and Arapaho, including Red Cloud, seated at left, and Little Big Man, standing at Red Cloud's left, pictured in September 1877
Melancholy: Mathew Brady at Gettysburg in a photograph erroneously titled 'The Wheat-Field in Which General Reynolds Was Shot', in July 1863
Revisiting the scene: Mathew Brady (right) at Gettysburg in a photograph accurately titled 'Woods in Which General John F. Reynolds Was Killed', in July 1863
Mathew Brady returned from the First Battle of Bull Run, in July 1861
Left: Henry James Sr. and Henry James Jr. photographed in August 1854, and right: The book 'Matthew Brady: Portraits of a Nation' by Robert Wilson explore the fascinating life of one of the U.S.'s first war photographers through his monochrome images
A soldier's body lies mangled on a field, killed by a shell at the battle of Gettysburg. (Alexander Gardner/LOC) #
Francis C. Barlow entered the Civil War as enlisted men in the Union Army and ended it as general. Wounded several times, Barlow survived the war, later serving as the New York Secretary of State and New York State Attorney General. (LOC) #
Union General Herman Haupt, a civil engineer, moves across the Potomac River in a one-man pontoon boat that he invented for scouting and bridge inspection in an image taken between 1860 and 1865. Haupt, an 1835 graduate of West Point, was chief of construction and transportation of U.S. military railroads during the war. (AP Photo/Library of Congress, A.J. Russell) #
A lone grave (bottom center), near Antietam, Maryland in September of 1862. (Alexander Gardner/LOC) #
Frederick Douglass, ca. 1879. Born a slave in Maryland, Douglass escaped as a young man, eventually becoming an influential social reformer, a powerful orator and a leader of the abolitionist movement. (George K. Warren/NARA) #
An unidentified Union officer, photographed by Mathew Brady. (Mathew Brady/NARA) #
Confederate troops viewed from a distance of one mile, on the opposite side of a destroyed bridge in Fredericksburg, Virginia, by Union photographer Mathew Brady.(Mathew Brady/NARA) #
President Abraham Lincoln (center, hatless), surrounded by a crowd during his famous Gettysburg Address, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on November 19, 1863. (AP Photo/Library of Congress) #
General James Scott Negley of Pennsylvania. At the start of the war, he was appointed brigadier general in the Pennsylvania Militia, and went on to command troops in several battles. After his division narrowly escaped disaster during the Battle of Chickamauga, Negley was relieved of command. Negley served several administrative posts, retiring from the army in January of 1865. (LOC) #
Amputation in a Field Hospital, Gettysburg. (LOC) #
A nearly-starved Union soldier who survived imprisonment in the notorious Confederate prison in Andersonville, Georgia. (LOC) #
Nurse Anne Bell tending to wounded soldiers in a Union hospital, ca. 1863. (U.S. Army Center of Military History) #
Soldiers of the VI Corps, Army of the Potomac, in trenches before storming Marye's Heights at the Second Battle of Fredericksburg during the Chancellorsville campaign, Virginia, May 1863. This photograph (Library of Congress #B-157) is sometimes labeled as taken at the 1864 Siege of Petersburg, Virginia (LOC) #
Union General Isaac I. Stevens, seated on a porch in March of 1862, near Beaufort, South Carolina. Stevens, formerly the first governor of Washington Territory, was killed in action at the Battle of Chantilly on September 1, 1862 after picking up the fallen regimental colors of his old regiment, shouting "Highlanders, my Highlanders, follow your general!" Charging with his troops while carrying the banner of Saint Andrew's Cross, Stevens was struck in the temple by a bullet and died instantly. #
Harriet Tubman, in a photograph dating from 1860-75. Tubman was born into slavery, but escaped to Philadelphia in 1849, and provided valuable intelligence to Union forces during the Civil War. (AP Photo/Library of Congress) #
African Americans collect the remains of soldiers killed in battle near Cold Harbor, Virginia, in April of 1865.
Confederate dead lie among rifles and other gear, behind a stone wall at the foot of Marye's Heights near Fredericksburg, Virginia on May 3, 1863. Union forces penetrated the Confederate lines at this point, during the Second Battle of Fredericksburg.
"A harvest of death", a famous scene from the aftermath of the Battle of Gettysburg, in Pennsylvania, in July of 1863(Timothy H.